Extra-Pulmonary Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Multi System Disease
The spread of corona virus disease started in 2019 causing severe acute respiratory
distress syndrome. It has recently become a global pandemic and public health problem in almost all
countries. similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and Middle-East respiratory syndrome.
Coronavirus infections are responsible for severe and potentially life-threatening acute
respiratory syndromes. As of 17th June 2020, a total of more than 8,044,178 confirmed cases
and approximately 440,413 total deaths for coronavirus disease 2019 had been reported
In India, a total of more than 354,065 confirmed cases and approximately 11,903 total
deaths for COVID-19 had been reported.
The main purpose of this retrospective study is to provide an overview of the current literature on the extrapulmonary manifestations and complications of COVID-19 to improve the management and prognosis
of these patients.
The mainstay of COVID-19 management is the patient’s isolation and supportive medical care,
as recommended by World Health Organization, which includes the use of antiviral,
antibacterial medications, and oxygenation therapy as appropriate.
Initially, corticosteroids were not recommended for routine use as their usage may be associated
with delayed viral clearance. However, the latest trial data demonstrated that low to moderate
dosage of dexamethasone may reduce mortality among critically ill patients, especially for patients requiring ventilation therapy.
Patients on mechanical ventilator support or on oxygen support has shown better results
by improving in PaO2 /FiO2 ratio (P/F ratio) and SpO2 levels in prone/awake prone ventilation.
There is currently no drug for COVID-19, but it has been revealed that some commercially
available drugs are promising, at least for treating symptoms in early stages.
Emerg Med Open J. 2021; 7(1): 14-20. doi: 10.17140/EMOJ-7-161