Extra-Pulmonary Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Multi System Disease
*Corresponding author: Vijayasree Biruduraju and Ankita R. Chawla*
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2), has been recently declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Apart from acute respiratory manifestations, SARS-CoV-2 may also adversely affect other organ systems. To date, however, there is a very limited understanding
of the manifestations and management of COVID-19 related conditions outside of the pulmonary system. This study provides an overview of the current literature about the extra pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 that may affect the renal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hematopoietic, neurological, or reproductive systems. This study also describes the current understanding of the extra pulmonary manifestations caused by COVID-19 to improve the management and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
Materials and Methods
A total number of 200 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease were retrospectively evaluated for extra-pulmonary manifestations findings or complications. These patients had undergone various imaging studies, blood examinations during the course of hospital stay. The data reviewed using the institutional PACS, database system over a period of four months (August to November 2020).
Among the 200 patients (males and females), 175 of them had extra-pulmonary complications. Various extra-pulmonary findings such as acute kidney injury, renal failure, cytokinase strome, acute myocardial injury, congestive cardiac failure, pulmonary thromboembolism,
gastrointestinal, neurological complications were observed.
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
All retrospective clinical studies, case series, and case reports with data on extra-pulmonary manifestations in COVID-19 that were published from the end of December 2019 till the end of February 2021 were included. Studies that did not mention extrapulmonary manifestations were excluded.
The review was based on publications available on PubMed and data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO). Search terms used were ‘novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV)’, ‘SARS- CoV-2’, or ‘COVID-19’ combined with ‘asymptomatic’, ‘gastrointestinal’, ‘cardiac’, ‘neurological’, ‘hepatic’, ‘hematological’, ‘renal’, ‘psychiatric’, ‘hematological’, and ‘atypical’.
COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV.