The Potential Role of Systemic Calcium in Periodontal Disease

Suellan Go Yao and James Burke Fine*

The Potential Role of Systemic Calcium in Periodontal Disease.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium due to
the interaction between a bacterial infection and the host response in a susceptible patient.

It affects the supporting structures of the tooth connective tissue, alveolar bone
and periodontal ligament and results in loss of bone, bleeding and erythema of the gingival
tissues and mobility of teeth with eventual tooth loss.

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. It is found in food,
dietary supplements and present in some medications. Calcium is required for vascular,
muscle, nerve functions and intracellular signaling.

Serum calcium is regulated via calcitonin and the parathyroid hormone using
the bone as a reservoir. According to the Institute of Medicine, the Recommended
Dietary Allowance for calcium range from 700 to 1300 mg/d for life stage groups
of at least 1 year old, based on bone health.

This was based on the calcium content of human breast milk for infants,
calcium balance studies for those ages 1-50 years old and observation and
clinical trial evidence for those older than 50 years.

The tolerate Upper intake levels range from 1000 to 3000 mg/d, depending
on life stage group based on indicators including hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria,
vascular and soft tissue calcification and nephrolithiasis.

Summarizes the RDA and UL for calcium for gender and age. Food sources of calcium
include dairy products, certain vegetables such as kale and broccoli and fortified foods.
lists food sources for calcium.

They believe that the better vitamin D intakes facilitate beneficial effects of higher
calcium intakes, most likely by the enhancement of calcium absorption.

Dent Open J. 2015; 2(5): 125-131. doi: 10.17140/DOJ-2-123