The Potential of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Extracellular Vesicles to Treat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Versus Hydroxychloroquine in Human Patients.
Mortality associated with cytokine storm resulting in multiorgan failure is rising at an alarming rate in the US. This is in part due to the relatively high R0 and devastating hypoxia, particularly in the aged population. HCQ certainly has demonstrable anti-inflammatory effects in multiple viral infections, including SARS-CoV-1, however, immune suppression is not desirable in the case of severe SARS-CoV-2 patients. Rather, immune modulation, which the virus actively subverts, is critical for acute recovery and avoidance of long-term pathology due to pulmonary scarring
The issue is that for an effective recovery M1, pro-inflammatory, macrophages need to polarize to
M2, regenerative, macrophages to facilitate repair to the damaged lung tissue. As an alternative, we have documented evidence of the effects of amniotic fluid extracellular vesicles on inflammation and tissue repair -in adult recipients. The consequences of this can be varied, but will likely include acute fatalities due to inadequate alveolar repair and pathological pulmonary scarring, which will have negative long-term clinical outcomes.
SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects older patients. By transplanting EVs from very young sources (amniotic fluid) into adult SARS-CoV-2 patients, we believe we can supplement the lack of tissue repair and facilitate recovery by a natural process, which does not result in immune suppression, but rather favors immune modulation and pulmonary regeneration. By simply harvesting the blood plasma from a young mouse and administering it, intravenous, to an old mouse, the old mouse began to exhibit the same anti-aging effects and improved tissue regeneration.
Epidemiol Open J. 2020; 5(1): 8-12. doi: 10.17140/EPOJ-5-118