The Association of Dietary Fatty Acids and Gut Microbiota Alterations in the Development of Neuropsychiatric Diseases: A Systematic Review

*Corresponding author: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur*, Gautam Allahbadia, and Mandeep Singh

Full-Text PDF:

systematic review

Abstract

Aim
Having reviewed earlier the role of probiotics in obesity and other associated metabolic disorders like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), engineering probiotics for cholera and other neuronal diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson disease with incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) so much on the rise, Here the aim of this systematic review is to highlight the influence of dietary patterns, like fatty acids, other lipids on role of maternal stress and the neuropsychiatric disease (NPD) formation along with influence of probiotics in reverting them.
Method
A systematic review was carried out using the PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Cochrane reviews, and Google Scholar, Search engine with the MeSH Terms; “Impaired lipid metabolism”; “Oxidative stress”; “inflammation”; “Gut Microbiota (GM)”; “NPD”; “Schizophrenia (SCZ)”; “Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)”; “Bipolar disorders (BD)”; “Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)”; “5-hydroxy tryptamine (5HT)”; “Brain derived neutrotrophicfactor (BDNF)”; “Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)”; “Saturated (SFA)”; “Depression”; “Resolvins”; “Protectins”; “Short chain fatty acids (SCFA)”; “Probiotics”; “Fecal Transplantation” from 1990 till June 2020.
Results
We found a total of 900 articles under various subheadings of GM and NPD and probiotics with NPD and SCZ, ASD. One hundred ninety-two (192) articles got selected for this comprehensive review. No meta-analysis was conducted.
Conclusion
We observed a marked correlation among dietary habits, like utilization of Western diet (WD) with marked escalation of intake of high fat, high sugar rich diet escalated n6 PUFAS over n3 PUFAS and influence on GM that is not helpful in digestion of the nondigestible fibers in form of starch along with generation of butyrate aiding in certain beneficial effects and on formation of various neurochemicals like escalation of BDNF while increased GABA, reduced 5HT formation alteration of tryptophan metabolism is seen in these WD food and we have tried to detail the role of SCFA formation, generation of resolvins and how they work in the formation of various NPD besides maternal diet during pregnancy and how it determines infants microglial priming and later determinants of early stress.
Keywords
Dietary fat; Western diet; Microbiota to brain communication (MBC); Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); Gut microbiota (GM); Schizophrenia (SCF); Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).