Surgical Management of Dystocia in Local Breed Sheep: A Case Series.
Dystocia means difficulty in parturition to the point of needing human intervention and it is a major cause of lamb loss in the flock and may result in great economic loss to the farmers. Clinical and physical examination finding revealed that there were weak and unable to stand, and straining in case 1 and anorexia, lethargy, recumbent with attempt to stand, abdominal distension and granting sound in case 2.
Dystocia means difficulty in parturition to the point of needing human intervention. Dystocia also defined as the failure of transmission of stage one to stage two labor or when thirty minutes spend to start of stage two of labor or parturition. Stage two of parturition is fetal expulsion or delivery of neonate which usually occurs within 15-30-minutes. The third stage of parturition follows and ends by the expulsion of the fetal membranes which usually takes place within 4-6 hours.
Dystocia in small ruminants can be resulting from either maternal or fetal pre-disposing factors. Among fetal-related factors the most common causes of dystocia were oversized fetus, lamb
mal-presentation, malposition, postural defects, and congenital abnormalities. whereas, over feeding of dam during pregnancy, uterine inertia in polytocous ewes, incomplete cervical dilatation
(ring womb) and small diameter of pelvic canal are maternal related factors of causes dystocia.
Other factors that may contribute for the occurrence of dystocia are age of ewe, gender of offspring,
large or small birth weights. Dystocia constitutes a major reproductive problem among small ruminants and can hinder or affect their productivity because of newborns and dams mortality with
severe economic losses. Hence, the outcome and success rate of caesarean section is higher if surgery was performed early when the fetus is alive or freshly dead.