The special edition on “Current Trends in Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury” is an initiative by the Nephrology – Open Journal to highlight the current advances in both basic and clinical research in this field.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a general term for heterogeneous disorders affecting kidney structure and function, which have a significant impact on global public health. It is currently defined as ‘kidney damage or GFR <60 ml/minute/1.73 m2 for three months or more, irrespective of the cause’ and is a common disorder affecting up to 16% of the population worldwide. On the other hand, Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a syndrome that results in a sudden decrease in kidney function or kidney damage within a few hours or a few days. It is common in patients who are in the hospital, especially in intensive care units. Some of the major causes of AKI include decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to any underlying factor (such as hypertension, a heart attack, or the use of NSAIDs), direct damage to the kidneys resulting from many factors including sepsis and glomerulonephritis, and blockage of the urinary tract bladder, prostate or cervical cancer, or kidney stones.
Current advances in CKD and AKI highlight our increasing understanding of the nuanced interaction of kidneys with other organs. For example, recent clinical studies indicate that exposure to proton pump inhibitors, used by an estimated 15 million Americans, is associated with an increased risk of incident CKD, CKD progression, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Similarly, the LEADER trial demonstrates that people who have type 2 diabetes and prior cardiovascular disease are at a higher risk of developing CKD. In this context, there are new discussions emerging on the use of Vitamin D treatment in CKD and AKI. In basic research, new approaches such as CRISPR/Cas gene editing systems, pharmacogenomics, and the use of miRNAs have the potential to accelerate our understanding of as well as offer therapeutic intervention for CKD and AKI. In terms of surgical approaches, there is renewed interest in nephron-sparing surgery versus radial nephrectomy.
This special edition invites manuscripts from all disciplines that will contribute to our basic understanding of various aspects of CKD and AKI including renal fibrosis, polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and glomerulonephritis as well as advances in clinical research and therapeutic interventions related to AKI and CKD.