Review on Leptospirosis and its Public Health Significance

*Corresponding author: Mohammedkemal M. Ame*

Abstract

Leptospirosis is the most widespread and most prevalent zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira bacteria this is pathogenic Gramnegative bacteria, the disease leptospirosis a zoonotic disease of global importance. It caused by various serovars of leptospira interrogans that belong to the genus Leptospira. Besides leptospira interrogans is the most serovars like the disease occurs in nearly all mammalian species. The highest burden in low-income both found in urban and in rural environments. Rodents are known as the main reservoir animals, However, all animals are reservoir include human so leptospirosis is more common in the tropical regions rather than subtropics because of the longer survival of the organism in the environment and frequent exposure of animals and humans to contaminated environments. Direct transmission to humans by broken skin and mucous membranes exposed to the urine of infected animals. While the clinical signs of leptospirosis do not vary greatly with the species of animals include laboratory tests. Control and prevention is sanitary measures, vaccination, quarantine and rodent control are the most important control measures of the disease, require elimination of the carrier state, maintenance of environmental condition and immunization of the animal, tropical areas where warm humid conditions and alkaline or neutral soil helps leptospira survive better.
Keywords
Leptospirosis; Zoonosis; Leptospira; Rodent.