Review on Epidemiology and Economic Impact of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Ethiopian Perspective

Mohammed Mustefa and Beredo Bedore*

Review on Epidemiology and Economic Impact of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Ethiopian Perspective.

Livestock plays a crucial role in the livelihoods of the majority of Africans. It accounts for 16% of the national and 27-30% of the agricultural gross domestic products (GDPs) and 13% of the country’s export earnings.

Small ruminants are among important domestic animals which are highly adaptable to a broad range of environmental conditions4 and they fulfill a number of economic and social functions. Unlike a large number of small ruminant’s populations, the country fails to optimally utilize these resources mainly various factors in which diseases stand front line. One of the diseases that hamper the productivity of small ruminant is bucellosis.

Among the members of the Brucella group B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis species are not host-specific, and may transmit to other animal species; hence, from epidemiological evidence, the three species (B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis) have distinct host preferences and the organisms are capable to cause an infection in a wide range of host species, including humans. The remaining three members of the species have much greater host specificity. Cross transmission of brucellosis can occur among cattle, swine, sheep and goats and other species including dogs, horses, feral swine, bison, reindeer and camels.

The disease spreads from one herd to another and from one area to another is always due to the movement of infected animals. Hence, lack of biosecurity measures such as strict movement control of animal from one area to another, lack of proper hygienic practices and good husbandry management play a great role in the increment of the prevalence of brucellosis.

Vet Med Open J. 2019; 4(2): 77-86. doi: 10.17140/VMOJ-4-139