Review on Dissociative Anaesthetics and Compatible Drug Combinations in Veterinary Clinical Practice

Jiregna Dugassa* and Abebe Fromsa

Review on Dissociative Anaesthetics and Compatible Drug Combinations in Veterinary Clinical Practice.

Dissociative anesthesia is a form of anesthesia characterized by catalepsy, catatonia, analgesia, and amnesia. It does not necessarily involve loss of consciousness and thus does not always imply a state of general anesthesia. Dissociative anesthetics probably produce this state by interfering with the transmission of incoming sensory signals to the cerebral cortex and by interfering with communication between different parts of the Central Nervous System (CNS).

The common dissociative anaesthetics of veterinary importace: includes ketamine and tiletamine (in Telazol®). Their combinations are effective anesthetic induction regimens and can be used both to induce and maintain anesthesia in procedures of mild to moderate surgical intensity and short duration. For instance, ketamine and xylazine produce lateral recumbence and anesthesia adequate for endotracheal intubation, gastrointestinal endoscopy, and most minor procedures. A combination of ketamine and medetomidine or dexmedetomidine produces immobilization, analgesia, and excellent muscle relaxation for 60 min.

Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, the dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations and dream like states or trances. Many dissociative have general depressant effects on respiration, produce sedation, analgesia and ataxia, as well as
cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.

Generally, dissociative anesthesia implies dissociation from the surroundings with only superficial sleep mediated by interruption of neuronal transmission from the unconscious to conscious parts of the brain. During dissociative anesthesia, the animal maintains its pharyngeal, laryngeal, corneal, palpabral, and swallowing reflexes.

Vet Med Open J. 2018; 3(1): 21-30.doi: 10.17140/VMOJ-3-129