Research and Its Importance

Syed Shoeb Ahmad*

Research and Its Importance

Everyone has heard of research, but what exactly comprises research is often misunderstood.
This word encompasses a large area of intervention and observation aimed
at improving the quality of life of populations.

Research has been defined as a “systematic investigation, including research developments,
testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge”.

It also aims to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
The Cambridge English dictionary defines research as a “detailed study of a subject,
especially in order to discover information or reach a understanding”.

However, research often goes beyond the subject,
going from the sub-molecular level to the study of gigantic structures,
in order to develop new ideas, confirm or reject old theories and search for hypotheses.

While the human race is estimated to be 200,000 years old, most of
our progress has occurred in the last 10.000 years.

The primary research is a type of basic research, including experiments on animals
or other models; biochemical, genetic, physiological, pharmacological,
biotechnological, methodological and other investigations;

population based studies or surveys and finally, development or improvement
in analytical procedures.

These primary studies generate the raw data required to make hypotheses or testre-test theories.
Clinical research can be either “interventional” or “non-interventional.

Interventional studies are also called “clinical trials”. Here, human
volunteers are subjected to a rigid standard protocol designed by the investigators.

The clinical trial may compare an untested medical approach with a standard mode
of practice, placebo or no intervention. The trial may also be a comparison of 2 arms
of interventions already available.

The ultimate aim of such research is to determine the safety and efficacy of the intervention.

Ophthalmol Open J. 2015; 1(1): e1-e2. doi: 10.17140/OOJ-1-e001