Reproductive Biotechnology Options for Improving Livestock Production: A Review

*Corresponding author: Atsbha Hadgu and Haben Fesseha*

Abstract

Reproductive biotechnology is one of the options which have a role in the improvement of livestock. It is a technology that improves livestock production by improving the reproductive insufficiency of the animal through different techniques. These are artificial insemination (AI), cloning, estrus synchronization, embryo transfer (ET), transgenesis and in vitro fertilization. These techniques are very important techniques to advance livestock production and to meet the people’s demands now-a-day. These reproductive biotechnologies have a dramatic effect on the world’s economy through the improvement of livestock genetics, preventing disease, facilitate transportation, keeping endangered animals and reducing economic loss. Artificial insemination in animals was originally developed to control the spread of disease, avoiding the transport of animals with potential pathogens to other animal units for mating and avoiding physical contact between individuals. The use of semen extenders containing antibiotics also helped to prevent the transmission of bacterial diseases. AI is broadly used in developing countries including Ethiopia. Even if reproductive biotechnologies are effective to change livestock production status of the countries, they are not applied routinely due to the presence of different challenges. Therefore, this review highlighted the major reproductive biotechnology options and their roles in the improvement of livestock production.

Keywords

Artificial insemination; Estrus synchronization; Embryo transfer; Livestock; Reproductive biotechnology.