Product Development and Quality Evaluation of Biscuit and Ready-to-Eat Snack from Cowpea-wheat Flour Blends
*Corresponding author: Moges Yilma and Shimelis Admassu*
The research was conducted with the aim to develop biscuit and ready-to-eat snack product from cowpea flour incorporated with wheat flour.
The wheat and cowpea flour blends were prepared in five blending ratios including B1 (90:10), B2 (40:60), B3 (65:35), B4 (78:22), and B5 (53:47); respectively. The D-optimal mixture design software was used for flour blend formulation. Biscuit and extrudate products from cowpea and wheat blends were analyzed. Quality characteristics parameter used for value-added products includes physical, functional, proximate, mineral and microbial quality. Furthermore, bioactive components and sensory quality evaluation were also investigated. The biscuit samples were prepared at a baking temperature of 205 °C for 10-minutes holding time. The extrudate samples were also manufactured at feed moisture (18 and 21%), barrel temperature (100, 110 and 120 °C) and screw speed (175 and 220 rpm).
The result for crude protein analysis of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples was revealed that 15.972±0.125, and 15.915±0.251; respectively. The result for microbial quality analysis of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples was also shown as aerobic bacteria count of 44×10-5, 42×10-5 and yeast and mold (un-detected); respectively. The highest overall sensory evaluation of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples score were found 7.6 and 7.14; respectively.
Based on quality evaluation parameters, 35% cowpea flour with 65% of wheat flour blending ratio reveled sensor acceptable for biscuit production and manufacturing of ready-to-eat snack.
Biscuit; Cowpea; D-optimal mixture; Extrudate products; Wheat.