Principles and Applications of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Microarray: A Review

*Corresponding author: Haben Fesseha* and Hiwot Tilahun

Abstract

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarrays are collections of DNA probes arranged on a base pair and the latest commercialized molecular diagnostic technologies that offer high throughput results, more sensitive and require less time. It is the most reliable and widely accepted tool facilitating the simultaneous identification of thousands of genetic elements even a single gene. Microarrays are powerful new tools for the investigation of global changes in gene expression profiles in cells and tissues. The different types of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods of fabrication and their use. The DNA microarrays assembly process is automatized and further miniaturized. DNA microarrays are used in the search of various specific genes or in gene polymorphism and expression analysis. They will be widely used to investigate the expression of various genes connected with various diseases in order to find the causes of these diseases and to enable their accurate treatment. Generally, microarray analysis is not only applied for gene expression studies, but also used in immunology, genotyping, diagnostics and sequence analysis. Additionally, microarray technology being developed and applied to new areas of proteomics, cancer research, and cellular analysis.

Keywords

Application, DNA, Microarray, Principle.