Population-Based Projections of Place of Death for Northern Ireland by 2040

*Corresponding author: Clare McKeaveney, Tracey McConnell, Craig Harrison, Victoria Stone and Joanne Reid*

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retrospective study


There are global challenges in relation to an increasingly older population, rising numbers of deaths and the resulting need for end-of-life care. It is imperative for Health and Social Care to examine where people die and forward plan.
To establish the place where people have died 2004-2018 and project future place of death care setting by 2040.
Materials and Methods
Population-based trend analysis of place of death for people that died in Northern Ireland (2004-2018 from Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency) and projections using linear modelling (2019-2040 projections by Office of National Statistics).
Deaths are projected to increase by 45.9%, from 15,922 in 2018 (of which 36.3% will be aged 85+ years) to 23,231 deaths in 2040 (39.8% aged 85+ years). Between 2004 and 2018, proportions of home and care home (defined as nursing and residential beds) deaths increased (24.5-27% and 16.3-19.4% respectively), while the proportion of hospital deaths declined (51.9-47.6%). If current trends continue, by 2040, deaths within the community (home and care home) will account for between 46.7-55.2% of all deaths. However, if care home capacity is limited at current levels (as of 2018), hospital deaths are projected to account for the largest proportion of deaths by 2040 (51.7%).
Death at an increasing age has implications for end-of-life care provision. This study demonstrates an increasing need for end-of-life care over the next 20-years, particularly within community settings. Projections highlight the need for comprehensive planning to ensure service provision within the community meets the needs of the population.
Trend analysis; Place of death; Community palliative care.