Physicochemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Dehydrated Apricots under Different Drying Conditions
*Corresponding author: Faizullah Khan*, Tariq Umar Khan, Muhammad Arif, Tajuddin, Muhammad Qasim and Maraj Alam
Khan F, Khan TU, Arif M, Tajudin, Alam M. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of dehydrated apricots under different drying conditions. Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2016; 2(1): 3-8. doi: 10.17140/AFTNSOJ-2-125
©2016 Khan F. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different drying methods on the physicochemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of dehydrated apricot fruits. The fresh apricot was dehydrated in open sun and in moveable solar drier developed by Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Skardu. The chemical composition showed that the fresh apricots contained moisture 83.3%, ash 0.72%, crude fat 0.03%, crude Protein 0.9%, crude fiber 1.02% and carbohydrates 14.03%. The moveable solar drier and using open sun drying substantially decreased moisture content to 14.61% and 15.7% respectively. Proportions of other components were increased, which include ash (3.51% and 3.43%), crude fat (1.99% and 1.82%), crude protein (1.0% and 0.97%), crude fiber (2.98% and 2.95%) and carbohydrates (75.91% and 75.13%). Organoleptic characteristics of open sun dried apricot has a little negative effect on over all acceptability when compared to moveable solar dehydrated apricot, however the open sun dried method was declared acceptable by the panel of judges for color, taste and overall acceptability.
PCSIR: Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; GB: GilgitBaltistan; FTC: Food Technology Center; PSF: Pakistan Science Foundation.
Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) is the most important part of the country extends over an area of 27188 sq miles. Administratively it is distributed among 10 Districts (Gilgit, Skardu, Diamer, Astore, Ghagchae, Ghizer, Hunza, Nagar, Shigar and Kharmang) with a population of 2 million. The main issue of Gilgit-Baltistan is food insecurity as cultivated lands are less than one kanal per capita.1,2 The people of GB totally depend on wheat supplied through Government on subsidized rates form Punjab.3-5 Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is one of the most important, attractive, delicious, highly nutritious and major fruits of Gilgit-Baltistan. The fruit tree grows from plain to altitude of 3000 meters.6 The fruit is having a distinct pleasant aroma and is used for preparing many products including jam and nectar. The dried fruit is available in the market round the year, while the fresh fruit comes in the market by the end of May to September.7 Due to lack of processing, preservation, testing, transportation, communication and research large amount of fruits and vegetables are wasted and do not reach in distant markets because of their perishability.8 To overcome the food security issues of Gilgit-Baltistan and to cope the tremendously increasing demand of food locally without bringing more land under cultivation. Dehydration, processing and preservation of fruits through trainings to farming community are milestone.9,10 The present work was thus under taken to evaluate the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of dehydrated apricot and to compare their quality on the basis of nutritional significance under different drying methods used in Gilgit-Baltistan.11
Dehydration of Fruits
Proper healthy and mature Apricot (Halman variety) fruits were selected for this study. The fruits were washed with deionized water and dipped in already prepared 1500 ppm potassium metabisulphite solution12-14 for 20 minutes. The fruits were then kept in pre-washed stainless steel perforated trays. The trays were put in moveable solar drier and in open sun on the roof of PCSIR processing hall. The moveable solar drier moved according the direction of sun 8:00 am and 3:00 pm.15,16 The moveable solar drier temperature reached to 70-75 °C maximum and the open sun maximum temperature was noted up to 20-27 °C during the month of July. The apricot dehydrated in moveable solar drier during 46 hours (approximate 2 days) while apricot dehydrated in open sun during 196 hours (8 days and 4 hours). The trays collected from moveable solar drier and open sun were packed in polyethylene zip bags with proper tags for further physicochemical and organoleptic evaluation.3,17 (See Flowsheet diagram)
Moisture, total ash, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber and carbohydrates were determined according to the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) methods. Crude protein was estimated by kjeldhal method, Carbohydrates were determined by difference method.18-22 (Tables 1 and 2)