Petrous Apex Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Leak: A Review Article

Omar Ramadan*

Petrous Apex Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Leak: A Review Article.

The objective of this study was to present a review article about petrous apex cerebrospinal fluid leak. Published English-language literatures in PubMed and Google Scholar.

PubMed and Google Scholar were systematically searched using search terms: petrous, apex, cerebrospinal and leak. Temporal, bone, cerebrospinal and leak. We included studies about petrous apex CSF Leak.

Seventeen studies were included in this study. The results showed that 72% of patients are adult and 28% of patients are children. Meningocele is the most common cause of petrous apex CSF leak in pediatric patients, while iatrogenic trauma is the most common cause in adult patients.

Seventy-seven percentage of pediatric patients have active leak, while 96% of adult patients have active leak. Nose is the most common site of CSF leak in both adult and pediatric patients.

Sixty-six percentage of pediatric patients have meningitis while only 20% of adults have meningitis. Most cases need surgical procedure.

Eleven percentage of pediatric patients have a recurrence, while 20% of adult patients have a recurrence. Petrous apex is a rare location for CSF leak.

Cerebrospinal fluid leak from an intracranial source is rare, as it is a life-threatening condition that can have difficulties in localization, diagnosis, and management. CSF leaks from the petrous apex are extremely rare, as only few cases are reported in the world literature.

Surgery of petrous apex area has potentially high morbidity rate due to
complex anatomy. Multiple surgical approaches have been
developed for reaching petrous apex region, all of them aiming to increase the anatomic exposure, reduce the complication rates, and result in high successful treatment.

Otolaryngol Open J. 2016; 3(1): 1-8. doi: 10.17140/OTLOJ-3-133