Pediatric Genitourinary Tumors-Clinicopathological Experience
The natural history and management of genitourinary tumors in the pediatric age is
different from that of the adults. Among the primary pediatric kidney tumors,
the most frequent is the Wilm’s tumor, followed by the meroblastic nephroma.
Wilm’s tumor is the most common pediatric abdominal malignancy
and the fifth most common childhood malignancy.
Many histological variants of non-Wilms primary renal tumors
are recognized, with prognosis and management varying by age and histology.
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is the primary diagnostic consideration
for a renal mass in the neonate, although its incidence decreases
with increasing age during infancy.
Adrenal tumors occur rarely in childhood. Most antenatally detected
suprarenal tumors are attributed to neurobalstoma.
Neuroblastoma along with ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma
constitute a group of ganglion cell origin tumors that originate from
primordial neural crest cells, which are the precursors of the sympathetic nervous system.
Ovarian malignancies in children may represent an array of unique
problems for the clinician who is more accustomed to diagnosing
and treating ovarian neoplasia in adults.
Although ovarian malignancies in children are rare, their recognition and diagnosis
are vital because they can be fulminant if treated inadequately.
Tumors of germ cell origin, embryonal carcinoma, dysgerminoma,
primary choriocarcinoma constitute approximately 70% of ovarian tumors in children.
In addition to benign lesions, the differential diagnosis for a painless scrotal
mass in a child includes leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and a primary testicular
tumor germ or non-germ cell.
Yolk sac tumors endodermal sinus tumors and teratomas
are the most common primary pre-pubertal testicular tumors.
Nephrol Open J. 2015; 1(3): 44-48. doi: 10.17140/NPOJ-1-108