Neutralizing Antibodies to Botulinum Toxin Type A as a Secondary Treatment Failure: A Case Report from Mumbai, India

*Corresponding author: Narmada Matang Khatri*

Abstract

Botulinum toxin use in aesthetic medicine for treatment of facial rhytids is common and has become more and more popular in India in recent times. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is produced by clostridium botulinum which is an anaerobic, spore forming, rod shaped bacteria. The botulinum toxin complex contains a 150 KD neurotoxin together with a complex additional protein. The
neurotoxin is cleaved by the clostridial proteases into heavy and light chain. The heavy chain (100 KD) after cleavage binds to gangliosides and a protein receptor on the presynaptic nerve ending, whereas the light chain (50 KD) blocks the release of acetylcholine, leading to a dose dependent weakening of the target muscle.
Keywords
Botulinum neurotoxin type A; Neutralizing antibodies; Secondary treatment failure; Aesthetic treatment; Facial rhytides.