Issues Related With Calorie Restriction for Prevention and Treatment of Obesity

Yi Li*

Issues Related With Calorie Restriction for Prevention and Treatment of Obesity.

Most obesity treatment strategies involve lifestyle management including to increase physical exercise. Physical exercise is not only helpful to increase energy expenditure but also, more importantly, is able to activate enzymes involved in metabolism pathways, able to improve vascular mitochondrial function, and able to modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. . It increases glucose uptake, decreases gluconeogenesis, stimulates fatty acid oxidation, increases insulin sensitivity, upregulate uncoupling protein levels, decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels. Glucose is a preferred energy source for high intensity exercise and also used during moderateintensity exercise.

The question why low calorie intake of diets containing high refined carbohydrates is associated with obesity is not totally clear at this moment. These studies might be able to identify target molecules that can switch our metabolism between the fat storage mode and the fat consuming mode. Therefore, it will be possible to design new drugs that target the molecules for the purpose to reduce body fat at a controlled speed. 

The most useful methods to prevent and to treat obesity are still focused on energy balance at present. However, the trials with short periods of time for prevention and treatment of obesity might have not demonstrated the importance of micronutrients. The increased levels of certain metabolites and decreased levels of essential nutrients in obesity are related with its complications as well. Therefore, obesity is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, hypertension, and cancer, despite the fact as one of the major chronic diseases worldwide. At the same time, it is necessary to carry out studies using animal models to address whether the artificial
sweeteners affect hormones involved in energy homeostasis or not.

Obes Res Open J. 2016; 3(2): e6-e8. doi: 10.17140/OROJ-3-e009