How to Perform Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Biopsy of Pancreatic Lesions?

*Corresponding author: Amir H. M. Alizadeh*

Abstract

A endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/biopsy (EUS-FNA/B) of pancreatic solid and cystic lesions is a modality, which huge numbers of articles has showed its high diagnostic accuracy. The degree of technical difficulty, size and type of needle, endoscopic technique, use of suction to aspirate tissue, use or not use of a stylet in the needle assembly, maneuvers to have high quality tissue, availability of an on-site cytopathologist, and, finally, end sonographer’s experience and skills who does the procedure have impact on the EUS-FNA results. Standard 19-G and 22-G fine-needle aspiration needles with or without high negative pressure have proven to be reliable in obtaining high-quality histologic samples in various indications. Twenty-five-gauge (25-gauge) needles provide better diagnostic yield when sampling pancreatic lesions compared with 22-G needles. The novel 19-G and 22-G ProCoreℱ needles have demonstrated a high yield in obtaining histologic samples, whereas 25-G. ProCoreℱ seems unsuitable for histology. A cytopathology service should be involved early in the planning process for establishing an EUS-FNA service. Data on the newly developed 20-G ProCoreℱ, SharkCore¼ and Acquire¼ needles are limited, but appear very promising. Use of the stylet does not increase the yield of endoscopic ultrasonography-fine-needle aspiration and is more cumbersome to use. In perspective, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is expected to refine differential diagnostic capabilities, favor widespread EUS utilization, and pave the road to targeted therapies and monitoring of treatment response. Approximately 3 to 5 passes should be sufficient to obtain a diagnosis. We need further studies for assessment of the use of Suction, Capillary (“Slow-Pull”), Wet and Fanning techniques.
Keywords
Pancreatic mass; Endosonography; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA); Tissue aquisition; Stylet; Diagnostic accuracy; Cytology; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB).