Host Related Risk Factors of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Vector Density in Halu District of Ilubabor Zone, West Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: Dagim Bekele* and Ahimadin Beshir

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original research

Abstract

Background
Trypanosomosis is disease caused by unicellular parasites, trypanosome, found blood and other tissue of vertebrates; including livestock, wild life and people. It is a serious disease in domestic livestock causing a significant negative impact on food production and economic growth in many parts of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Its epidemiology and impact on livestock production are largely determined by the prevalence and distribution of the disease and its vectors in the affected area.
Aim
To assess the host related risk factors of bovine trypanosomosis and apparent density of tsetse flies in four peasant associations of the study area. In relation to the host risk factors, the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was highest in those animals with poor body condition.
Results
The overall 5.32% prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was recorded from 432 blood sample collected from randomly selected animals using Buffy coat method. Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species 14 (60.87%). However, it was not statistically significant between sex of animals (p>0.05). The mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of the infected animals was lower
(20.65%±2.85) compared to non-infected animals (25.74%±4.80). There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the PCV values of infected and non-infected animals. Moreover, animals with different body condition exhibited statistically significant variation (p<0.05) in the prevalence of trypanosomosis. Overall an apparent density of the flies was 2.42 f/t/d by using mono-pyramidal and biconical traps. It indicated that, G. morsitance submorsitance, G. pallidipes and G. tachinoides were tsetse flies species caught.
Conclusion
Finally, this work showed that trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting the health and productivity of cattle in the district. Hence, due attention should be given to this sector so as to improve livestock production and agricultural development in the area.
Keywords
Halu; PCV; Trypanosomosis; Prevalence.