Hepatic Diseases in Canine and Feline: A Review

*Corresponding author: Kassahun A. Negasee*

Abstract

Dogs and cats are belonging to canine and feline family respectively. The liver is the largest gland in the body and is located in the cranial abdomen between 3rd and 4th ribs in dogs and cats. This review is mainly focused on: to understand the anatomy and physiology of liver, the liver diseases pathophysiology, to diagnose the liver diseases, managemental and ameliorative methods of liver diseases. The dual blood supply to the liver is hepatic artery and portal vein. The function of liver includes the regulation of digestion and metabolism, the synthesis of hormones and proteins, immune response and filtering of toxins from the blood stream. Any problem that affects the liver is liver disease. Inflammation of liver is hepatitis. Hepatitis caused by infectious, non-infectious, auto-immune and reactive. It can be acute and chronic. The most encountered liver diseases in dogs and cats are hepticlipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, portosystemicshunt, cholelithiasis, choledocholithiasis, cholecystitis, pneumobilia and hepatic neoplsia. The clinical symptoms of liver diseases include jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, gastro intestinal disorders and nonspecific signs include polyuria/polydipisia. The liver disease diagnosed based on history, liver function tests, medical imaging. The latest imaging procedures are endoscopic retrograde cholagio pancreatography (ERCP) and computed tomography (CT). For confirmatory diagnosis liver biopsy and histopathological interpretation is required. Therefore, based on diagnosis appropriate treatment should be selected: bile stasis is treated urodeoxycholic acid (URDA), fluid therapy include sugar and salt solution for
replacement fluid loss, gastrointestinal protectors include ranitidine, cimitidine and lactulose, albumin to treat hypoalbuminimia, antioxidant for scavenging free radicals include vitamin E, Selenium, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), diuretic fursimid for treatment of ascites and supplementation low protein diets. This laparoscopic technique for removal of gallstones and endoscopic retrograde cholagiopancreatography (ERCP) to treat gall stones on bile ducts and to widen the slipped ducts and liver transplantation for cirrhotic dogs and cats. Early accurate diagnosis and managing any predisposing factors that affects the health of dogs and cats are important for controlling the liver diseases.
Keywords
Canine; Feline; Liver disease; Hepatitis; Hepatocyte; Kuppfer cells.