Food Processing By-Products as Natural Sources of Antioxidants: A Mini Review.
The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants has led to multiple investigations in the field of naturally-sourced antioxidants. The search for cost-efficient natural antioxidants has led to the exploration with raw materials of residual origin. The present review starts with an introduction of lipid oxidation and the antioxidant mechanisms, as well as the most recent research on the recovery and utilization of food processing wastes. Most studies found high levels of compounds with antioxidant activities in waste materials, encompassing a wide category of fruits and vegetables, roots and tubers, grains and seeds; a majority of these natural materials contains phenolic acids and flavonoids.
The germ in the whole grain contains high levels of naturally occurring fat composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, whole grain reformulation calls for additional protection from antioxidants to maintain high product quality. Omega-3 enrichment has been another continuing trend. Omega-3 fatty acids are being added to a wide range of product categories, from baked snacks to dairy products, sauce and dressing and beverages. The desire to enrich food with nutritional ingredients such as fish oils (omega-3s fatty acids) greatly increases oxidative challenges due to the oxidative instability of these ingredients.
Moreover, increasing number of manufacturers are placing their product in clear packaging. This transparency attracts consumers, yet poses great challenges to food stability because light decomposes food. Addition of antioxidants helps to fight light-induced oxidation and protect the freshness of the product.
Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2016; SE(2): S7-S17. doi: 10.17140/AFTNSOJ-SE-2-102