Factors Affecting Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis: A Review.
There is a diversified microbial ecosystem in the rumen for efficient utilization of diet by providing essential nutrient to their host. But there are different factors affecting rumen microbial protein synthesis which are physical factors, chemical factors, dietary factors, biological factors and endogenous factors. Among the details of factors, dietary factors and ruminal pH are the dominant
factors influencing rumen microbial protein production. The effects of some dietary factors, on the amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, are discussed in this review.
Specifically, these factors include forage quality diets, level of feed and types of feed. It seemed that diets containing a mixture of forages and concentrates increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis because of an improved rumen environment for the growth of more diverse bacterial species. This review describes physical and chemical factors which include: pH and buffer system, oxygen concentration, rumen outflow rate and synchronized release of nitrogen and energy from the diet, a nitrogen compound, energy spilling, vitamins and minerals and antimicrobials chemicals, respectively.
Age, species, physiological status, sex, and stress are among endogenous factors that mostly affect microbial protein synthesis of a ruminant. Bacteriophages, protozoa predation and bacterial lysis are biological factors affecting the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.
Ruminants are distinguished from the rest of the animals by the morpho-physiological adaptation of the upper part of their stomach. This peculiarity allows them to turn roughages and low
quality protein, even non-protein nitrogen (NPN) into quality nutrients for themselves such as microbial protein and volatile fatty acid.
Vet Med Open J. 2019; 4(1): 27-35. doi: 10.17140/VMOJ-4-133