Essential Oils and Cosmetic Aromatherapy

Saima Siddique*

Corresponding Author

Saima Siddique, MPhil

Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Labs Complex, Lahore 54600, Pakistan; College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54890, Pakistan; Tel. (+92-42) 99230688; 99230695; Fax: (+92-42) 99230705; E-mail: saimesiddique@gmail.com

Introduction

In the last two decades (1997-2017), use of alternative and complementary therapies along with the mainstream medicine has gained momentum.1,2

Aromatherapy uses essential oils, as the main therapeutic agents, which are secondary plant metabolites, aromatic in nature and give distinctive odour or flavour to plants.3 Chemically, they are complex mixtures comprised of a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, alcohol, aldehydes, esters, ethers, ketones, oxides phenols and terpenes, in variable ratios.4 These oils are so potent and concentrated that they work on pressure points and rejuvenate. There are various methods by which they are administered in small quantity like inhalation, massage or simple applications on the skin surface and rarely, they are taken internally.5 Inhalation and the external application of these oils for the treatment of mental and physical balance are the very basics of aromatherapy. The therapy of these oils is known to relieve the stress, rejuvenate and regenerate the individual for a next day’s work.5

These aroma molecules are very potent organic plant chemicals with a curative potential on the body, mind and spirit. Their versatile character of antibacterial, antiviral, antiinflammatory nature along with immune booster body with hormonal, glandular, emotional, circulatory, calming effect, memory and alertness enhancer is well documented by many scientists.5-11

The stimulation properties of these oils lay in their structure which closely resembles with actual hormones. The penetration potential of these oils to reach the subcutaneous tissues is one of the important characters of this therapy. Their effects are complex and subtle due to their complex structure and chemical properties.5 The mechanism of their action involves integration of essential oils into a biological signal of the receptor cells in the nose when inhaled. The signal is transmitted to limbic and hypothalamus parts of the brain via olfactory bulb.3 These signals cause brain to release neuro messengers like serotonin, endorphin, etc., to link our nervous and other body systems assuring a desired change and to provide a feeling of relief. Serotonin, endorphin and noradrenalin are released from calming oil, euphoric, and stimulating oil respectively to give expected effect on mind and body.12

Cosmetics aromatherapy utilizes certain essential oils for skin, body, face and hair cosmetic products. These products are used for their various effects as cleansing, moisturizing, drying and toning.3 A healthy skin can be obtained by use of essential oils in facial products. On a personal level, cosmetic aromatherapy of full-body or foot bath will be a simple and an effective way to have an experience.3 Similarly, few drops of appropriate oil give a rejuvenating and revitalizing experience.13

Likewise, massage therapy involving the use of grape seed, almond, or jojoba oil in pure vegetable oil during massage has been shown to have wonderful effects.14

Further studies on the essential oils are recommended for their potential use in cosmetics aromatherapy.

Affiliation

Saima Siddique, MPhil*

Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Labs Complex, Lahore 54600, Pakistan; College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54890, Pakistan

Corresponding Author

Saima Siddique, MPhil

Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Labs Complex, Lahore 54600, Pakistan; College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54890, Pakistan; Tel. (+92-42) 99230688; 99230695; Fax: (+92-42) 99230705; E-mail: saimesiddique@gmail.com

Article History

Received: April 23rd, 2017; Accepted: May 3rd, 2017; Published: May 4th, 2017

Cite this Article

Siddique S. Essential oils and cosmetic aromatherapy. Trichol Cosmetol Open J. 2017; 2(2): e1-e2. doi: 10.17140/TCOJ-2-e004

Copyright

© 2017 Siddique S. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Doi

10.17140/TCOJ-2-e004

1. Tabish SA. Complementary and alternative healthcare: Is it evidence-based? Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2008; 2(1): V–IX.

2. Nayelhi S, Berenzon S. Pleasure, transformation and treatment: Use of alternative medicines to treat emotional illnesses in Mexico City. Saúde e Sociedade. 2013; 22(2): 530-541. doi: 10.1590/S0104-12902013000200022

3. Koul O, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS. Essential oils as green pesticides: Potential and constraints. Biopestic Int. 2008; 4(1): 63-84. Web site. http://projects.nri.org/adappt/docs/63-84.pdf. Accessed April 22, 2017.

4. Van Zyl RL, Seatlholo ST, Van Vuuren SF, Viljoen AM. The biological activites of 20 nature identical essential oil constituents. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2006; 18(1): 129. Web site. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US20130 1099710. Accessed April 22, 2017.

5. Babar A, Al-Wabel NA, Shams S, Ahamad A, Khan SA, Anwar F. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015; 5(8): 601-611. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.007

6. Siddique S, Perveen Z, Nawaz S, Shahzad K, Ali Z. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six species from family Myrtaceae. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2015; 18(4): 950-956. doi: 10.1080/0972060X.2014.935020

7. da Silva GL, Luft C, Lunardelli A, et al. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 2015; 87(2): 1397-1408. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201520150056

8. Hammami S, Jmii H, El Mokni R, et al. Essential oil composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of teucrium pseudochamaepitys growing spontaneously in Tunisia. Molecules. 2015; 20(11): 20426-20433. doi: 10.3390/molecules201119707

9. Koulivand PH, Ghadiri MK, Gorji A. Lavender and the nervous system. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 681304. doi: 10.1155/2013/681304

10. Matsumoto T, Kimura T, Hayashi T. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit-yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)-on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: A single-blind randomized controlled crossover study. Biopsychosoc Med. 2016; 10(1): 11. doi: 10.1186/s13030-016-0063-7

11. Tildesley NT, Kennedy DO, Perry EK, Ballard CG, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers. Physiol Behav. 2005; 83(5): 699-709. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.09.010

12. Trambert R, Kowalski MO, Wu B, Mehta N, Friedman P. A randomized controlled trial provides evidence to support aromatherapy to minimize anxiety in women undergoing breast biopsy. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2017. doi: 10.1111/wvn.12229

13. Han X, Gibson J, Eggett DL, Parker TL. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oil Inhalation improves positive feelings in the waiting room of a mental health treatment center: A pilot study. Phytother Res. 2017; 31(5): 812-816. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5806

14. Sut N, Kahyaoglu-Sut H. Effect of aromatherapy massage on pain in primary dysmenorrhea: A meta-analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017; 27: 5-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.01.001

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