Effectiveness of Endoscopic Pitch Raising Surgery in Male to Female Transsexual Individuals

Ziya Saltürk*, Esin Avcı, Yavuz Atar, Belgin Tutar, Güler Berkiten, Tolgar L. Kumral and Sertaç Yetişer

Effectiveness of Endoscopic Pitch Raising Surgery in Male to Female Transsexual Individuals.

Transsexualism is a complex condition characterized by inconsistency between psychological and anatomical gender, and may lead to serious stress in the event of gender dysphoria.

Individuals can undergo a series of surgeries and hormone therapy to change their gender characteristics.

The voice is not only a means of communication, but is also important in the psychological perception of gender, being accepted as a secondary sexual characteristic.

The fundamental frequency is the main parameter responsible the perceived gender of the voice, and is related to the length, mass, and stiffness of the vocal folds.

However, laughing, crying, coughing, and other situations where voluntary control is lost can be unpleasant for patients. Phonosurgical options include cricothyroid approximation, laser assisted voice adjustment, and Wendler’s glottoplasty.

CTA was the first of these methods to be introduced, and has been used to achieve the desired feminine voice in many cases. However, it may not always able to create a voice that is sufficiently feminine.

Nine articles were identified that matched these criteria; three provided the complete data set,
so we could calculate correlation coefficients and mean values if they were missing. One article presented mean values but no correlation coefficients, so these were obtained from the authors by

The entire data set for one article was obtained from the authors by e-mail and all relevant calculations were performed. Thus, five articles were finally included in the present study.

As dependent groups were used in these studies, standardized mean differences were obtained using a random effect model. Analyses were performed using the meta for package for the R statistical program.

Otolaryngol Open J. 2021; 7(1): 8-12. doi: 10.17140/OTLOJ-7-164