Determination of the Chemical Composition of Avocado (Persea Americana) Seed

Nonso Collins Ejiofor*, Ikechukwu Edwin Ezeagu, Moses Babatunde Ayoola and Emmanuel Arinze Umera

Determination of the Chemical Composition of Avocado (Persea Americana) Seed.

The fruit of Persea americana, commonly known as avocado, is an edible fruit from Central
America which is easily adaptable in tropical regions including Nigeria. The species belongs to the family Lauraceae. P. americana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado and pear. The fruit tree can attain a height up to 20 m, with large spreading and flat topped crown. The avocado is classified as an evergreen, although some varieties lose their leaves for a short time before flowering. The tree canopy ranges from low, dense, and symmetrical to upright and asymmetrical. Leaves are 7-41 cm in length and variable in shape (elliptic, oval, and lanceolate).

They are often pubescent and reddish when young, becoming smooth, leathery, and dark green when mature. Fruits are large, 5-15 cm long, ovate to spherical, shining green and fleshy. In addition, the fruit is a large fleshy berry with a single seed. It is pyriform, green, with a high oil content rich in vitamins A, B and E.3,4 The fruits are edible and the bark; leaves, stem and roots are used as local medicine against diseases.

The seed of P. americana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification. The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines. On the other hand data on its chemical composition could qualify it for use in food or animal feed. The avocado seeds are rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects.

Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2018; SE(2):S51-S55. doi: 10.17140/AFTNSOJSE-2-107