Coronavirus Disease-2019 Vaccines and the Vaccination Challenges in India: A Review

Imran R. Rangraze*, Shehla S. Khan and Yakub Sayyad

Coronavirus Disease-2019 Vaccines and the Vaccination Challenges in India: A Review

Since December 2019, China reported the first corona disease epidemic,
caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2,
which is currently a worldwide public health concern.

As per the latest World Health Organization (WHO) situation report
date as reported by national authorities by 10:00 hours CET 21 September 2021),
India announced 3,531,498 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease-2019, and 445,768 deaths.

SARS-CoV-2 is an acute infection of the respiratory system
which is primarily transmitted through
the respiratory tract, by either respiratory droplets, secretions,
or direct contact even for a low infective dose.

Otherwise, the virus can be found in stool samples and blood
of a severe pneumonia patient, suggesting the possibility of fecal-oral transmission
indicating multiple routes of transmission.

This novel coronavirus is associated with respiratory
syndrome with a variable degree of severity ranging from
paucisymptomatic respiratory illness that ascend into a severe pneumonia
and acute respiratory distress syndrome with multiorgan failure.

Previous studies reported age as a factor associated
with the severity of the symptoms; patients aged 60-years or above
have a greater chance of developing severe respiratory syndromes
and a longer period of disease course, unlike patients below the
age of 60-years having comparatively milder symptoms.

The most commonly observed signs and symptoms are fever with or without
chills, sore throat, cough, loss of smell and loss of taste sensation,
etc. However, the majority of the patients are asymptomatic and
have mild forms of the disease.

Intern Med Open J. 2021; 5(1): 6-13. doi: 10.17140/IMOJ-5-117