Coronavirus Disease-2019, Diabetes and Dialysis in Southern Italy: The Second Wave Follow-up

*Corresponding author: Felice Strollo, Ersilia Satta, Carmine Romano, Carmelo Alfarone, Teresa Della Corte*, Giuseppina Guarino, Maria Pasquarella and Sandro Gentile

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research protocol

Abstract

Background
After the official coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)) pandemic declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO), Italy had the second-largest number of confirmed cases, after China. The Italian government introduced progressive infection-mitigation measurements, thus dramatically reducing social interactions and preventing virus spread. During the summer, infection containment measures progressively loosened until, due to an unjustified interpretation of some permissions and the excessive utilization of public transportation at school reopening, the contagion rate progressively increased until causing a severe challenge for our National Health Service (NHS) again.
Aim
To assess the efficiency of our previously described protocol in 18 Campania region-located Nefrocenter Consortium dialysis centers (DCs) as further adapted to new knowledge under the new ubiquitous contagion conditions and to identify SARS-CoV-2-infection mortality rate and risk factors.
Methods
381 HCP members underwent regular monitoring on April 1 and November 13, 2020. Dialysis patients did so too during that period according to the expected shifting prevalence over time (mean±SD:853±30 per month; range 825 to 873) vs (11.8% in April, and 14.8% in November vs. a pre-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) 12.0% rate in January).
Results
More patients got infected in November (10.19%) than in April (0,24%), and 22 patients of the 89 from the SARS-CoV-2 November positive subjects required hospitalization for moderate-severe symptoms (24.72%), with death unavoidably coming in 19 (86.36% of hospitalized and 21.35% of infected patients) compared to the only one recorded in April (0.12%). The pandemic’s two periods
showed a strong association between mortality rate and often co-existing comorbidities, primarily represented by arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Conclusion
The previously efficient contagion containment measures adopted by our DCs were not enough in November to fight the global infection risk pending on the whole Italian social community around. The author, discuss possible reasons and put forward further suggestions for the best handling of any future infection waves.
Keywords
COVID-19; Dialysis; Diabetes; Prevention; Contagion; COVID second round.