Complications Related to Implants Used in Anterior Bleb Forming Glaucoma Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature

*Corresponding author: Alejandra Salinas*, FabiĂĄn RodrĂ­guez and Javier BardavĂ­o

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systematic review



To make an account of published implant-related complications (IRC) by a systematic review of the literature.


A systematic search of Pubmed and Scopus databases and Google Scholar engine was performed with selection criteria to detect papers on IRC. We excluded unrelated papers and reviewed selected ones. We considered papers that did not explicitly state about occurrence or not occurrence of IRC as non-IRC reporting. Main outcome measures were the number of papers reporting on complications, IRC, and types of IRC.


After the search, selection, and addition, we studied 109 papers. Incidence of IRC was 4.5%, half required explantation. While 26 implant studies found IRCs (23%), 13 case reports on surgical complications, 8 (61.5%) of them reported IRC. Frequent complications were conjunctival erosion, blockage of the tube, migration to anterior chamber or damage to surrounding tissues.


Most papers did not report on IRC. Length or nature of studies may skew finding IRC. The incidence of IRC was 4.5%. Hard and sharp implants carry a greater risk of IRC and explantation.


Implant-related complications (IRC); Glaucoma surgery; Anterior bleb forming.