Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Clove Oil and Clove Extract on Oral Pathogens

Charu Gupta* and Dhan Prakash

Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Clove Oil and Clove Extract on Oral Pathogens.

Dental caries, a chronic disease is unique among humans and is one of the most common important global oral health problems in the world today. Dental caries is caused due to the destruction of dental hard acellular tissue by acidic by-products from the bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and sugars.

It progresses slowly in most of the people which results from an ecological imbalance in the equilibrium between tooth minerals and oral biofilms. This is characterized by microbial activity, resulting in fluctuations in plaque pH due to bacterial acid production, buffering action from saliva and the surrounding tooth structure.

The microbial community of caries is diverse and contains many facultative and obligate-anaerobic bacteria. Streptococcus mutans is an important etiologic agent in dental caries. Dental caries can affect
the humans in various ways such as presence of tooth pain, infection or dysfunction of the stomatognathic system which can limit the necessary ingestion of energetic foods, affecting the growth in children and adults including their learning, communication skills and recreational activities.

Gum disease involves bacterial growth and production of metabolic substances that gradually destroy the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth. Oral cavity pathogens include Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Halobacterium sp., Veilonella sp. etc. These bacteria grow and attack the tissues causing gingivitis, characterized by inflamed gums that bleed easily.

The causative bacteria reside in plaque, the deposit that forms on the base of the teeth and hardens
to form tartar. Poor oral hygiene is the major cause of gum
disease. Lifestyle, nutrition and ageing affect the immune response and
increase the risk of gum disease.

Dent Open J. 2021; 7(1): 12-15. doi: 10.17140/DOJ-7-144