Clinical Metritis and Endometritis in Diary Cattle: A Review

*Corresponding author: Kassahun A. Negasee*

Abstract

Reproduction is one of the key pillars of production in many herds and individual animals. In female animals, reproduction can be affected by uterine diseases including metritis and endometritis. The objective of this review is to understand metritis and endometritis, diagnosis and treatment approaches, and the economic impact of uterine inflammations. Metritis is inflammation of the wall of the uterus, whereas endometritis is inflammation of the functional lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. Clinically, they are characterized by an enlarged uterus containing a watery red-brown fluid to viscous off-white purulent uterine discharge, which often has a fetid odor within 10 to 14-days after postpartum period in clinical metritis whereas clinical endometritis can also be observed its clinical signs after 21-days postpartum period. The risk factors for the occurrence of clinical metritis and endometritis include extrinsic factors include calving season and nutrition whereas intrinsic factors include retained fetal membrane (RFM), dystocia, metabolic disturbance, negative energy balance (NEB) and other non-specific diseases. These factors disturbing the normal physiology and weaken the immune system of dairy cattle. The factors favor the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and cause inflammation of the uterus and results in metritis and endometritis. This result in increased conception interval increase the number of inseminations, loss of milk and meat production, marked drop in fertility and increase the cost of treatment. Clinical metritis and endometritis can be diagnosed by clinical symptoms and cytological examinations. Clinical metritis and endometritis can be treated by anti-inflammatory drugs flunixin meglumine, antibiotics (pens-trip and long-acting oxytetracycline), intrauterine infusion by using saline or iodine tincture solutions. Clinical metritis and endometritis are the most frequent uterine disorders in dairy cows causing decreased fertility leading to high economic losses. Therefore, management of these production diseases can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment, supplementation of balanced feed containing minerals, vitamins, appropriate proteins and carbohydrates, good quality management during and after calving of the female animals.
Keywords
Diagnosis; Dairy; Disease; Clinical; Endometritis; Metritis; Risk factors; Therapeutics.
Abbreviations
LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; NEB: Negative energy balance; NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
PGF2α: Prostaglandin F2 alpha; PMNs: Polymorpho neutrophil; RFM: Retained fetal membrane.