Chemical Composition of Fruit Peels Essential Oil from Citrus Species and their Antimicrobial Efficacy as Biopreservatives.
Extraction, chemical determination and comparison of essential oil (EO) composition from the peel oil of three varieties of citrus, sweet lime (Citrus limetta, Meetha Nimbu), lemon (C. limon) and acid lime (C. aurantifolia, Kagzi Nimbu) and their antimicrobial
efficacy as preservative in food spoilage was studied.
The extraction from all the three types lemon peel oil was done using clevenger apparatus and the chemical constituents of lemon
peel EO analyzed by GC-MS. The antagonistic activity of lemon peel EO and 50% methanolic extract from peel residue left after
EO extraction was studied against common food borne pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis,
Bacillus sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion assay. The test fungal species were Rhizopus sp., Rhizomucor sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp.
The chemical constituents of lemon peel EO analyzed by GC-MS showed 22 constituents with limonene (39-92%), β-myrcene
(0.08-2.57%), α-terpineol (0.3-7.3%), α- and β-pinene (0.2-25.4%) as major ingredients and 1-Octanol, cis-linalool oxide, sabinene
as minor constituents. It was found that lemon peel oil exhibited wide range of antimicrobial activity against both groups of
bacteria with highest inhibition of zone produced against Bacillus mycoides and B. cereus 34 mm and 28 mm respectively and against
fungi Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus sp. (34 mm and 28 mm respectively). In contrast to EO, the peel extract produced widest zone of
inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus followed by S. epidermidis and B. and in case
of fungus, peel extract was most effective against Alternaria sp. and Rhizopus sp.
Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J.2022; 8(1): 29-35. doi: 10.17140/AFTNSOJ-8-177