Sports and Exercise Medicine

Open journal

ISSN 2379-6391

Challenges and Practices in the Implementation of Coaching Manuals in Selected Youth Handball Coaching Program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abate S. Wasihun*

Abate S. Wasihun, Med

Lecturer, Department of Basic Science and Humanities, Sawla Campus, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; E-mail: abatewasihun@gmail.com; wasihunabate@ymail.com

INTRODUCTION

Handball is one of the rapidly becoming popular games all over the world.1-3 The handball game that we know today was developed in northern Europe at the end of the 1880s. Accordingly, it was popular in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and German. It believed that, Denmark was recognizing as the birth place of modern handball.4 World’s handball governing body was formed in 1928 and currently it has five member continental federations and 208 member countries.5 The game handball was introduced into Ethiopia during the 1968 via university instructors. But still handball is not a big sport in Ethiopia with only about 144 registered club players and only about 284 handball project centers of 7100 youth project trainees’ nationwide (data of Ethiopian Handball Federation (ETHF) reported in 2018/19).1,2

There are strategic themes that are to be considered when coaching youth handball athletes. First, they should be able to develop young talents as much as possible. Alternatively, the coaches must at the same time when coaching the talents, keep the players, which are only playing since having handball as one of their hobbies. This requires different kind of an approach from the coach. Every practice must be planned with these two types of players in mind and the training should be given in same standard by using coaching manuals.6,7 Thus, this study was intended to assess the current practice and challenges in implementation of youth handball coaching manual in selected Addis Ababa city handball coaching program.

METHODS

Research Design and Study Population

This study was used descriptive survey method. The population of this study was Addis Ababa handball project coaches, trainees sport administrative bodies. The total numbers of handball project trainees, coaches and sport administrative bodies form three sub cities were 292. Among these 250 were trainees, 10 were coaches, and the rest 32 were sport administrative officials.

Sample Size and Sampling Technique
SEMOJ-6-176EQ

 

 

 

Where; n=sample size, N=total population, and error of tolerance.

By using this formula with confidence level of 95% (0.05), the sample size was 92. Based on this formula, the sample frame of trainees were 50. Census method is that method of statistical enumeration where all members of the population were studied.8 Accordingly, all coaches (10), and handball federation officials (32) were used as a sample because it is important to get first-hand information about the research problem, since they have a direct relation and experience about the issues.

Source of Data and Data Collection Instrument

For present research work the primary and secondary data were used. Primary source of data was collected from trainees’, coaches, supervisors and sport administrative bodies. Secondary source of data was gathered from documents, books, journals, articles, web sites and research papers related to the study. The instruments used for data collection was questionnaires, and field observation. Both qualitative and quantitative data collecting instrument was sate in the data collecting process.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on the Table 1 of standardized training court, safety and maintenance of the training and competition court, 75% (69) of respondents responded were disagree, whereas 25% (23) of respondents replied strongly disagreed on the practice and competition areas are safe, regularly inspected and maintained. Based on the above data, most project sites lacked suitable and safe training court. As explained by Jesse et al,10 when facilities are lacking as in innumerable projects then training is held in uncomfortable field. Such places limit the program and when facilities are lacking the trainees do not learn the skill and coordination that is essential for their development. On item 2 of Table 1, availability of sport equipment and training materials, 59.9% (55) were disagreed, 35.8% (33) strongly agreed and 4.3% (4) were agreed. This indicated that the availabilities of sport equipment and materials were inadequate and those finding also supports the previous study of Tesfay.11 As Jeffs12 explained that; scarcity of sport materials strongly affects the project training. In addition, the availability of sport facilities and equipment’s has a tremendous effect on the development and popularly of a given sport. If the facilities and equipment’s are available in sufficient manner it is too easy to produce a number of outstanding players from projects of handball and they will show highest performance at national even international level.13,14 Regarding on item 3 of Table 1, 23.8% (8) of respondents agree on the availability of emergency medical forms, first aid kit, 48.9% (45) were responded disagree and 42.4% (39) were replied strongly disagreed on the availability of these first aid materials. This result shows there is no first aid access in the project center and it affects the training program. However, teams must have access to a first-aid kit at all competitions, trainings, clinics and other sporting functions.15

Table 1. Response of Coaches, Administrative Officials and Trainees on Facility and Equipment

S. No.

Items

Strongly Agree

Agree Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
Disagree

Strongly Disagree

No.

% No. % No. % No. % No.

%

1

The training and competition areas are standardized, safe, inspected regularly and maintained

69 75 23

25

2

Availability of sport wear, equipment and training materials (ball, cone, whistle…

4 4.3 55 59.9 33

35.8

3

Emergency medical forms, first-aid supplies and personnel are available and easily accessible 8 8.7 45 48.9 39 42.4

 

As depicted in Table 2, the developments pathways are provided for talents athletes and coaches to pursue careers at higher level 60.9% (56) were agree, 17.4% (16) of respondents replied neither agree nor disagree and 21.7% (20) replied disagree. This shows there is good development pathways provided for talented athletes to select for sub city, regional competition and for club level.16,17 Regarding to item 2 of Table 2, on the scouting of trainees, 30.5% (28) and 47.8% (44) of the respondent about trainees scouting system responded that strongly disagree and agree consecutively. The rest of 21.75% (20) respondents disagreed. This implies that athlete identification system18 had not modern that is way it affects the coaching program. As Addis Ababa handball federation19 stated that, when selecting youths for project training; study the age, family status, health condition, body weight, level of physical fitness components, previous experience, etc. As indicated in the above table of item 3, on the number and length of practices, and contests (competition) appropriate for the age group, 71.7% (66) of respondents were replied disagree, and the rest of 28.7% (26) respondents were replied strongly disagreed. This shows that the time allotment for each training session was not enough; in addition lack of performance evaluation and friendly games for each age category and these may lead the failure of handball development.20,21 On the item of development of fair play, teamwork and sportsmanship with having fun, 39.1% (36) of respondents replied strongly agree and the rest 60.9% (56) of respondents were agreed. This concludes that, the training program advocates code of ethics and coordination of teamwork and the responses supported by Zinabu.22

Table 2. Responses of Coaches, Administrative Officials and Trainees about Scouting and Developmental Pathways of Coaches and Trainees

S. No.

Items

Strongly Agree

Agree Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
Disagree

Strongly Disagree

No.

% No. % No. % No. % No.

%

1

Development pathways are provided for talented athletes and coaches to pursue careers at a higher level

56 60.9 16 17.4 20 21.7

2

Trainees selection (scouting system) is scientific and via the help of medical staff

28

30.5 44 47.8 20 21.7

3

The number and length of practices, and contests (competition) appropriate for the age group

66 71.7 26

28.3

4

The training increases development of fair play, teamwork and sportsmanship with having fun 36 39.1 56 60.9

 

Regarding on item 1 of the above table, families support of the program 9.7% (9) respondents disagreed, 8.7% (8) neither agreed nor disagreed, 61.9% (57) agreed and the rest of 19.6% (18) responded strongly agree. This result indicates the support of trainees’ family is too low. As Canada Sport Federation23 explained that, “coach must work cooperatively with parents to provide good experience of youngsters”. Regarding on ratio of coaches to participants, 3.3% (3) of coaches and the administrative personnel responded disagree, 72.8% (67) of respondents agreed and the rest of 23.9% 22) replied strongly agree. This shows that the coach trainee ratio is not appropriate and difficult to manage, instruct and correct the trainees. According to Knopp and Leonhard cited in Endrias Ferenji24 stated that; the type of program, teaching methods and available facilities affected by the size of the class. On the item 3 of Table 3, social, cultural and economic benefit of youth handball training program, 18.5% (17) respondents agreed, 52.2% (48) replied disagree and the rest 29.3% (27) neither agreed nor disagreed. However, sport plays a significant role in the generation of economic activity and in the provision of services to spectators, participants, communities, athletes, coaches, administrators and the corporate sector.6,25 Regarding to item 4 of Table 3, 21.7% (20) of respondents responded that strongly agree about the communication between coach, parent and officials, 60.9% 56) of them is agree, 17.4% (16) of the rest responded disagree. This indicates that there is lack of communication between coaches, families and officials. However, effective working relation can be realized by good communication between administrator, coaches and parents facilitated by effective managers.26,27 Regarding on item 5 of above table, about follow-up and supervision of program by supervisors, sport officials, 39.1% (36) of respondents replied that agree on evaluation and supervision. 8.7% (8) were replied neither agree nor disagree and 48.9% (45) respondents were disagreeing. This implies that there is lack in continuous supervision and follow-up of the training program. As Côté28 stated robust monitoring and evaluation can contribute to the accumulation of knowledge about ‘best practice’, leading to an increase in the effectiveness of sports development work.

Table 3. Response of Coaches and Administrative Officials on Coordination, Support and Communication

S. No.

Items

Strongly Agree

Agree Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
Disagree

Strongly Disagree

No.

% No. % No. % No. % No.

%

1

The trainee families support and follow the training program

66 71.7 26 28.3

2

The ratio of coaches to trainee is appropriate for providing adequate instruction, supervision and safety always

22

23.9 67 72.8 3 3.3

3

The program has social network, cultural value and economic benefit

17 18.5 27 29.3 48 52.2

4

Communication between coaches, parents and officials

20

21.7 56 60.9 16 17.4

5

5 Follow up and supervision of program by supervisors, sport officials 39 42.4 8 8.7 45 48.9

 

Based on the Table 4 of item 1, 23.8% (10) respondents replied strongly agree on that of budgeting is a cause, and 76.2% (32) respondents agreed for this case. This indicates 100% of respondents were agreed on budgeting problem is major causes in implementing training program. As with all other endeavors, finance and sponsorship are vital requirements. The costs associated with sports continue to hinder its development and serves to discourage widespread participation. According to Mills, cited by Kelbessa,29 every organization needs financial support to deliver its programs and projects. Regarding to collaborative work between education bureau and sport bureau, 45.3% (19) of respondents responded that strongly agreed, and 21% (50) of them were agree, 2% (4.7) of the rest responded disagree. As Ministry of Youth and Sport30 stated, the project training program does not work lonely without the coordination and collaborative work between each sectors of ministry of youth and sport and ministry of education from higher level to school level. Because the project is run mostly in school and trainees almost students especially education sectors play crucial role to implement the junior and youth sport project training. In addition to that, the linkage between youth federations and other governmental and non-governmental sectors also important. On item 3, trainees families awareness about youth sport training program, 15% (35.7) agree, and 64.3% (27) were disagree. These shows, trainee families weren’t aware to the sport program. The Coaching Manualcited by Dawit31 explained that; “the overall support of parents can be gained through understanding and communication, but if the training process ignores parent, there will be resistance and affect the training program”.

Table 4. Response of Respondents on the Causes that Challenge Handball Project Coaching

S. No.

Items

Strongly Agree

Agree Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
Disagree

Strongly Disagree

No.

% No. % No. % No. % No.

%

1

Budget and financing for sport sector is very little

10

28.3 32 76.2

2

Lack of collaboration work between education bureau and sport bureau

19

45.3 21 50 2 4.7

3

Awareness of the community  about youth sport training program 15 35.7 27 64.3

 

Table 5 shows about the quality of coaches. In relation to the regular and immediate feedback during session for players, 16.3% (15) were replied disagree, 20.6% (19) replied neither agree nor disagree, and the rest of 63.1% (58) respondents agreed on the coach give regular and immediate feedback during session for players. About the approach of coaches, 54.3% (50) respondents replied disagree, 24% (22) replied agree and the rest of 21.7% (20) strongly agreed. Regarding to the conflict handling of coaches, 67.4% (62) respondents were agreed and 32.6% (30) replied disagree on the coaches’ conflict handling skills. In relation to the coach’s quality of motivational skill, 38% (35) respondents agree and 31.5% (29) of respondent’s neither agree nor disagree on this issue and the rest of 30.5% (28) replies disagree. Regarding on item 5, 43.5% (40) respondents replied agree on coach’s listen and value others opinion, 40.2% (37) were disagreed and the rest of 16.3% (15) are strongly disagree on coach’s listening and giving value for others opinion. This data shows most handball project coaches have good communication and relationship with players and concerned body, and this increases the program effectiveness. The success of any coach perhaps every level of competition, is determined by his ability to effectively communicate with athletes in a mutually supporting manner. In addition, coaches may be knowledgeable and highly organized, but without open communication skills, these attributes may never be reflected in the performance of their athletes.32 Regarding on item 6, 65.2% (60) respondents replied agree, and the rest 33.8% (32) replied disagree. Regarding on item 7, 46.7% (43) respondents agreed on the coaches’ use of training time and punctuality, 40.2% (37) replied disagree and the rest of them 13.1% (12) replied strongly disagree about coaches’ punctuality. Regarding on item 8, 38% (35) respondents replied agree on the coaches’ time usage and the rest of them 62% (57) respondents replied disagree on the coaches’ adequate demonstration, and explanation skill. Regarding to item 9, 29.3% (27) were agreed, 52.2% (48) replied disagree and the rest 18.5% (17) respondents responded neither agree nor disagree. This shows that most project coaches have a leadership trait and controlling the practical environment. But in use of time and athlete’s performance evaluation, they are not good. They have basic knowledge of the sport skills what teaches, flexible and ability make training easy to trainees, use time wisely and has confidence in his ability to coach during training and competition, a quality of organized and plan for contingency and can demonstrate the contentfor example, came up with the following inventory that describes a good coach: Knowledge about skills, punctual, adventurous, has a loud voice, flexible.33-36

Table 5. Analysis of Results on Coach’s Quality

S. No.

Items Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
Disagree Strongly Disagree

No.

% No. % No. % No. % No.

%

Coaches’ communication and relationship

1

The coach gives regular and immediate feedback during session for players

58 63.1 19 20.6 15 16.3

2

He/she can easily approach his players about personal problems if might have

20

21.7 22 24 50 54.3
3 The team does not have many conflicts; if any, the coach can handle problems effectively 62 67.4 30 32.6

4

He/she can to inspire his players and understand their motivational forces that stimulate their participation

35 38 29 31.5 28 30.5

5

He/she listens and value others opinion

40 43.5 37 40.2 15

16.3

Coaches’ leadership traits and practice

6

Coach has confidence in his ability to coach during training and competition

60 65.2 32 33.8

7

The coach is punctual in training time and time use properly

43 46.7 32 33.8

8

The coach can demonstrate adequately, that goes hand in hand with proper explanation at the same time

57 62 35 38

9

The coach measures and evaluates trainees performance (fitness, technique and tactics) 27 29.3 17 18.5 48 52.2

 

Analysis of Field Observation

The researcher observed 10 Addis Ababa youth handball project centers. The total registered trainees were 250. During three term observation, the average trainees who actively engage in trainee were 151, which showed 60.4% of registered trainees were observed (Table 6).

Table 6. Field Observation Checklist

S. No.

No. Very Good Good Poor Adequate Inadequate No Existence
1

Training manual usage

2 Preparation of training plans

3

Method of demonstrating the training session

4

Coaches portfolio

5

Communication and feedback

6

Training equipment (ball, cone)

7

Sport wear, shoes and kits

8

Attendance records

9

Trainees personal profile

10

Standardized training court

 

Though this is the fact that, as the researcher actual field observation depicted in the above table, accordingly, training manual usage was poor. The training site and its surroundings were not attractive, and the court also not in a standard type. Multiple method of training was not applied. Poor preparation of training plans was administered. Training materials were inadequate. In line with this, there was no sport kits supplied for trainees. Due to this deficiency, there were a small number of trainees observed during the training day. The shortages of these materials have a negative impact on the effectiveness of the training process in general and the coaches and the trainees. In addition, trainees and coaches personal profile was not well recorded but the attendance record was yet good. Based on the actual observation, the communication and giving feedback timely was not good.

CONCLUSION

Based on the major findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn.

• The study found out that forming fruitful organizational process that can contribute to the development of youth handball program. However, lack in communication horizontally relation with the same standard and vertically from up to down and from down to up.

• In line with this, it was proved that coaches did not take coaching course, refreshing and up-to-date training. Due to this, most coaches did not use the manual properly, poor in preparing training plan continuously, lack in communication and timed feedback, recording necessary files as documentation. Hence the number of coaches in the project was not enough; they have been carried out low educational background and have no high coaching certificate.

• Even if the manual was also not prepared based on the training age, sex and fitness level. Hence the goal of training program is not clearly listed on the manual. The time allotment for training is not enough. Besides, sufficient friendly matches and performance evaluation competitions were not organized for each age category. Alike, some talented and promising athletes have been selected to play for high-level.

• The activities and the whole accountabilities were limited to certain sport expertise, and even personalities that were making fewer follow-ups, lack of families and community awareness about program, lack of collaborative work between education center and project coaching program are major causes that hamper the implementation of coaching handball.

• Moreover, due to lack of incentive, unsafe training court, trainees’ family’s willingness to support, unavailability of sport kit and inappropriate training time, the number of trainees were decreased when compared to registered athletes. And this greatly affects the training program implementation.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings of this study, the following are the possible areas of intervention suggested as recommendation.

• National federation of handball should organize technical department in collaboration with surrounding schools of PE teachers to have information about youth’s interest and talent for appropriate selection by using talent identification mechanism.

• For the successfulness of the project activities the existence of competitive coaches is paramount important. Regarding this, qualification, skill, competency, and performance-based coaches endorsement should be employed. Refreshment, updating and upgrading coaching courses for coaches and all stakeholders should prepared. In line with this, make a good coordination and communication with medical staffs who dictate the athletes’ age via scientific method to avoid age eligibility controversy.

• Supervisors should follow-up, monitor the training program and observe the progress with give technical assistance via video or other modes.

• National federation and regional federation even if coaches should organize different competitions and friendly matches among project trainees in schools, to evaluate the trainees’ progress and bring strong relationships between them. Furthermore, use modern database software for trainees’ registration so that may decrease the false age eligibility.

• Coaches should do their work via plan. Moreover, coaches should prepare physical, technical, tactical and other check list to evaluate the progress of the trainees. In line with this, data’s and profiles as well as other necessary documents should be appropriately recorded.

• Families of trainees’, communities, and investors, should improve the condition and maintenance of available facilities and sites, support necessary and sufficient equipment so that they are attractive, healthy and safe for training.

• As project training is milestone to generate new successor players for the club and national team level so that the government should provide sufficient technical and financial assistance to all level of organized sporting organizations.

• In addition to this, national sport governing bodies should design a roadmap to ensure sport as public base and formulate new policies and regulations to establish youth team at club level.

• Specific attention must be given to acquiring and developing resource material such as manuals, coaching kits and electronic aids, which will assist in improving knowledge and advancing the technical skills of sport persons.

Generally, all levels of youth and sport affairs office and handball federations, community, families, coaches, trainees’ schools, and physical education teachers must work together to achieve the project objective by designing new structure to work coordinately. In addition to this, it is essential to aware parents by creating different meetings or written material and participate them by organizing different ceremonies, ask to attend families during training time.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost I thank Almighty of God for making my dream come true. A special thanks to Theodros Berhanu, PhD, for all his support, feedback and advice as well as Abrha Ghiwot for his concrete feedback and sustenance. I would also like to thank my family for all the help with logistics and scheduling. Finally, I would like to thank my close friends for all the invaluable help during both intervention and writing the paper.

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