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Objective: This study aimed to conduct an evaluation of music therapy clinical trials
worldwide, to understand what trials have been conducted and to show the chronological
changes. Additionally, we sought to clarify issues related to providing clinical trial registration
Methods: We searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) database for
“music therapy,” and identified the disease target for each article found.
Results: A total of 150 clinical trial studies were found in the ICTRP using the term “music
therapy.” In these trials, music therapy was used for improvement of social functioning in
schizophrenia and/or serious mental disorders, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and cancer
symptoms. Twenty-five clinical trials were actively recruiting. Sixteen of the 25 trials were
registered in the United States at ClinicalTrials.gov, of which 9 trials were conducted in the US.
Seven trials were conducted in other countries such as Spain, Taiwan, and China.
Conclusion: A search for music therapy clinical trials retrieved 150 trials from the ICTRP, and
the number of clinical trial registrations has increased yearly. Music therapy is widely used in
patients with various diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety, and arthritic pain and
has the potential to improve certain disease outcomes, but there is not enough evidence to
substantiate its efficacy. It is important to enlighten researchers and pharmaceutical companies
on the proper management of the quality of such clinical trial information, as this is an important
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letter to the editor
brief research report
Mechanisms by which some plants with antihyperglycemic effects reduce postprandial hyperglycemiaare not fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate some action mechanisms of extracts from stem bark of Citrus sinensis, seeds of Persea americana and bulbs of Allium sativum including in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and invertase; glucophagic capacity, absorption capacity on yeast cells and psoas tissues.
Heat treatments are the established food technology for commercial processing of milk. However, degradation of valuable nutrients in milk (as proteins) and its sensory characteristics occur during these processes due to substantial heat exposure. The most important reactions that occur during milk heat treatment are the whey proteins denaturation, its interactions with the casein
micelles and aggregation/dissociation of the casein micelles. Microfiltration represents an emerging food processing technology allowing gentle milk preservation at lower temperatures for similar, or better, nutritive value, microbial removal, and shelf stability. Thus, the aim of this work is to review the existing studies on the effects of microfiltration on milk proteins by comparing with the effects of heating treatments.
There is a need for an understanding of the genomic reality that realizes a connector between the genotype and the phenotype by addressing HOW the genotype actually manifests as the phenotype, as a function of the locus or the allele, mutated, variant or wildtype. That understanding is encompassed by the notion of the PRAXITYPE, which assembles and presents the available answers to the HOW!
The present activity was conducted to execute fruit handling, processing, preservation, dehydration and value addition trainings in Gilgit-Baltistan, to control wastages/losses of fruits and vegetable which is above 60% of total production.
To prepare fruit pulp for fruit preservation using potassium metabisulphite (K2O5S2). To develop household level methods for development of value added products like fruit jam, tomato paste, mix vegetable pickle and dehydrated apricot.
The research work for method development was carried out at Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Methods were developed with recommended dosages of chemical preservatives. A total of two days training courses were conducted focusing fruit handling, processing, preservation, dehydration and value addition of fruits and vegetables at 4 different locations in 4 districts of Gilgit-Baltistan (Skardu, Diamer, Hunza and Shigar).
The basic objectives of training were to control wastages/losses of fruits, income generation of fruit growers through sale of fruit, value added products and to contribute to ensure food security issue in Gilgit-Baltistan.
Urocystoliths are difficult to palpate and physical examination findings, complete blood cell count (CBC) and serum biochemical analysis are usually normal and the clinical signs are not definitive. Thus diagnostic imaging is a crucial tool required to confirm the diagnosis of urolithiasis in dogs presented with non-specific clinical signs of urogenital affection.
The aim of this study was to compare the capability of radiography and ultrasonography in detecting uroliths and concurrent urinary system abnormalities and to evaluate clinical, haematological and urinalysis findings of dogs affected with urolithiasis during the presentation.
Findings of signalment, history, physical and laboratory examination of blood and urine were performed and recorded. All dogs presented with complete or partial urinary obstruction, haematuria and renal failure were subjected to both radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation. Uroliths were retrieved by a cystotomy, urethrotomy, and at necropsy from kidney failure cases confirming urolithiasis.
The result revealed occult clinical haematuria in 56.5%, microscopic haematuria in 78.3% and dysuria/anuria in 34.8% of the affected dogs. Crystalluria is detected in seven (30.4%) of urolithiasis affected dogs. The total leukocyte count was significantly elevated (p≤0.05) in partially and completely obstructed dogs. Radiography diagnosed 19 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the urinary bladder (UB), 2 of 2 in the kidney and 12 of 13 in the urethra while ultrasonography diagnosed 17 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the UB and one in the urethra. From a total of 15 dogs presented with either neoplastic growth and/or cystitis concurrent with urolithiasis, ultrasound detected six while pneumocystogrpahy detected only one.
The study showed haematuria as the leading clinical sign of urolithiasis. Detection of urolithiasis and concurrent cystitis and/or urinary bladder growth increases when ultrasonography and radiography were employed together.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in people with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), due to behavioral choices and overlapping risk factors.
The purpose of this report is to determine the long-term incidence of human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer in women with pre-invasive cervical neoplasia, and compliance with medication and cancer screening recommendations.
HIV-infected women diagnosed with pre-invasive cervical neoplasia and an HPV-associated malignancy between 1995-2008 were identified. Data collected includes: demographics, HIV treatment/response, malignancy treatment/response, other healthcare utilization, use of health navigators, and compliance.
Seventy-one subjects were identified with HIV infection, cervical dysplasia, and at least ten years’ follow-up. 17/71 (24%) were identified with an HPV-related malignancy. The mean age of those diagnosed with HPV-related malignancy was 39-years. Malignancies included: Cervix-9, Vulva-7, Anal-4, Vagina-3, Uretha/Bladder-2, Oropharyngeal-3. Eight also had in-situ neoplasms: Cervix-4, Vulva-3, Oropharyngeal-1. Four subjects had 3 separate malignancies, and two others had 2 malignancies. Compliance with HAART correlated strongly with immunocompetence, response to therapy, use of patient navigators, and survival. Sixty out of saventy one (84.5%) subjects underwent screening mammography, 57/71 (80.3%) underwent colonoscopy, and 67/71 (94.3%) underwent pap smear testing. Compliance with screening compared favorably with the general population, and overall survival was similar.
Discussion and Conclusion
The long-term incidence and mortality from cancer in women with HIV and cervical dysplasia appears to be comparable to that seen in the general population, with the possible exception of oropharyngeal cancers. Compliance with cancer screening recommendations appears to be higher than in the general population. This suggests that structured primary care programs for HIV-infected women are effective in prevention/early diagnosis of cancer. Standardized screening programs for oropharyngeal cancers should be considered in this population.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); Cancer; Human papilloma virus(HPV); Women; AIDS;
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).
Isthmocele is a pouch defect of the anterior uterine wall, detected at the site of the previous cesarean scar. It can be asymptomatic or cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic discomfort and difficulty conceiving. The main objective of this review is to highlight the hysteroscopic and laparoscopic approaches in the management of this disorder.
During the hysteroscopic approach, the superior and inferior edges or just the superior edge of the defect are resected, removing the fibrotic tissue and allowing renewal of the continuous canal between the cervix and the uterine cavity. Whereas, the laparoscopic approach consists of direct visualization and removal of the defect followed by re-approximation of the myometrium. Both methods lead to significant improvement in symptoms and fertility.
While hysteroscopy is a quick non-morbid procedure that allows concurrent removal of other uterine pathology, laparoscopy is characterized by improved visualization and decreased risk of complications with defects less than 3mm as well as the possible correction of uterine retroversion. Definitely, randomized controlled trials are required in this field for better guidance of the diagnosis and management.
Isthmocele; Uterine niche; Cesarean scar defect; Cesarean scar syndrome; Hysteroscopy; Laparoscopy.
To investigate the additional beneficial effects of combined oat bran consumption and brisk walking exercise compared to oat bran consumption alone on bone metabolism markers in 40 to 50 years-old hypercholesterolemic women.
Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic women participants aged 40 to 50-years-old were recruited and were assigned into three groups, with eleven participants per group (n=11): sedentary without oat bran consumption control (C), oat bran consumption alone (Ob), and combined oat bran consumption and brisk walking exercise (ObEx) groups. Participants in the ObEx group performed brisk walking exercise sessions 30 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks. Participants in the Ob group and ObEx group consumed 18 g of oat bran powder, 7 days per week for 6 weeks. Participants’ anthropometry and blood bone metabolism markers were measured at pre- and post-tests.
There were no significant main effects of time (p>0.05) in serum total calcium, serum phosphorus and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP) (bone resorption marker) concentrations in all the groups. However, significantly (p<0.05) increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (bone formation marker) concentration was observed in Ob group and ObEx group respectively.
The present observations did not show large difference in the beneficial effects of combined oat bran consumption and brisk walking compared to oat bran consumption alone on bone metabolism markers. Future studies with longer duration may be needed to elicit greater effects of combined oat bran consumption and brisk walking than oat bran consumption alone on bone metabolism markers in middle age hypercholesterolemic women.
Bone metabolism; Brisk walking; Hypercholesterolemic; Oat bran consumption; Middle age women.
To evaluate the effectiveness of medial flap inferior turbinoplasty for the treatment of nasal obstruction in children.
Patients and Methods
This study was conducted at the ear nose throat (ENT) Department at Minia University Hospital, Minia, Egypt which include 40 children with bilateral nasal obstruction due to bilateral hypertrophied inferior turbinates that did not respond to medical treatment for 3 successive months in the form of (systemic antihistamines, systemic and local decongestant drugs and local corticosteroid spray) who attended the ENT outpatient clinic. All patients were subjected to turbinate reduction through medial flap inferior turbinoplasty.
Forty patients with bilateral hypertrophied inferior turbinates were assessed. Ninety days after surgery, 90% of patients transformed from severe or moderate degrees of nasal obstruction “pre-operatively” to mild degree or completely with no nasal obstruction; 80% of patients had grade I improvement in nasal obstruction and 14 patients had only grade II improvement; only
10% of patients had crustation.
Medial flap inferior turbinoplasty is safe and effective in the treatment of nasal obstruction in children with almost no complications was recorded.
Inferior turbinate hypertrophy; Inferior turbinoplasty; Nasal obstruction; Children.
The coexistence of a head and neck cancer and a lymph node tuberculosis is rarely described. The problem is essentially diagnostic. We report the case of a patient with cervical lymphadenopathy and non suspect swelliing of nasopharynx. Histopathological study of lymph node reveled an association of a tubercular adenitis and a metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma.
There is a global increase in occupational exposure to solvents, some of which are suspected to cause acute or chronic toxic nephropathies in humans. However, limited studies have been done to evaluate the systemic effects of exposure to some of the commonly used solvents such as paints.
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of chronic exposure to paint fumes on renal and hepatic functions of industrial spray painters. Methodology In this cross-sectional study, 49 occupationally exposed male industrial spray painters who had served for greater than 5 years were evaluated for changes in renal, hepatic and hematological indices using standard instruments and results were compared with levels in the unexposed (sex and age-matched) participants.
Significant changes in markers of renal, hepatic and hematological functions were observed in the exposed compared with unexposed participants including significant decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum levels of potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-), and significant increases in serum levels of creatinine (Cr), sodium (Na+), urea (Ur) and uric acid (UA) in the exposed compared to levels in the unexposed group. Abnormal serum levels of hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological indices (PCV, total-RBC, nuetrophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) were also observed in the exposed compared to levels in the unexposed participants.
Prolonged exposure to paint fumes may be associated with a significant risk for hepato-renal dysfunction and hematotoxicity. Preventive measures should include limiting exposure and using antioxidant medications.
Spray painting; Toxicity; Workers; Kidney; Liver; Blood cells.
Abbreviations ALT: Alanine transaminase; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; AST: Aspartate transaminase; eGFR: Estimated glomerular fitration rate; C-G: Cockroft-Gault; MDRD: Modification of diet in renal disease; Na+/K+/ATPase: Sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase; PH: Hydrogen Concentration; PCV: Packed cell volume; RBC: Red blood cells; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; UA: Uric acid; Ur: Urea.
Introduction: Overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease which is produced by the collusion of three metabolic defects-increased hepatic glucose production, impaired pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion and decreased insulin action. The measurement of plasma glucose 2 hours post-ingestion of 75 g of glucose during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may be used to classify individuals as normal glucose tolerant (NGT), impaired glucose tolerant, T2DM and T2DM with pancreatic β-cell failure.
Objectives: This study was undertaken primarily to show the importance of assessing the pancreatic β-cell function especially during the care of the diabetic patient.
Methods: A standard 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered to four groups of 8 subjects (4 male, 4 female). Blood was drawn every 15 minutes for 2 hours for the measurement of glucose, insulin and C-peptide and the measurement of the area under the curve (AUC(0→2)) over the 2-hour period.
Results: American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were used to classify the subjects. The normal glucose tolerant (NGT), had 2 h glucose 111±11 mg/dL, those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) had 2 h glucose 160±13 mg/dL. The 2 h glucose for the T2DM group was 258±27 mg/dL and those for the T2DM-PE group was 260±42 mg/dL. The AUC(0→2) for NGT group were 254±40 mg/dL/h, 112±61 μU/mL/h and 10.2±4.6 ng/ml/h for glucose, insulin and C-peptide, respectively. The AUC(0→2) for the IGT group were 394±32 mg/dL/h, 160±48 μU/mL/h and 19.8±7.7 ng/ml/h for glucose, insulin and C-peptide, respectively. The AUC(0→2) for the T2DM group were 474±62 mg/dL/h, 194±40 μU/mL/h and 13.4±4.7 ng/mL/h for glucose and insulin, and C-peptide, respectively. The AUC(0→2) for the T2DM-PE group were 481±80 mg/dL/h, 51±29 μU/mL/h and 7.2±2.8 ng/mL/h for glucose, insulin and C-peptide, respectively. There was no significant difference between the diabetic groups with respect to the glucose AUC(0→2) but a significant difference existed in the insulin AUC(0→2), (p<0.0001) mirrored by the fasting plasma insulin levels (30±8 μU/mL vs 14+8 μU/mL, for T2DM and T2DM-PE, respectively, p<0.0005). Although there was about a 300% increase in fasting insulin between the IGT and T2DM groups, the corresponding fasting C-peptide levels were only about 15%. This is probably due to differences in hepatic and renal functions in those two groups, the processes that control insulin and C-peptide levels in the body.
Conclusion: Although measurement of blood glucose appears adequate in the diagnosis of the diabetes, it seems that plasma insulin/C-peptide measurements could guide physicians in their choice of medications for the treatment of diabetic patients, especially when the pancreas begins to fail. To that end, larger studies are warranted to study the effects of hypoglycemic agents on hepatic insulin extraction and renal C-peptide excretion to ascertain the reliability of the plasma insulin and C-peptide levels.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Pancreatic β-cells; Oral glucose tolerance test; Pancreatic exhaustion.
Despite previous findings attesting to the syndemic nature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic disease and mental illness coordination of these issues remains a significant barrier to initiating and maintaining the delivery of mental and physical health care to persons living with HIV (PLWH). These inequities are even greater when applied to rural settings, particularly in areas that are medically underserved. To date, there is scarce research regarding the lived experiences of African American PLWH
in rural settings. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze this qualitative data set. These discourses provide a rich narrative regarding effective systems of care, the context in which these processes take place and related constraints or limitations of the current systems.
In-depth interviews with 24 African American PLWH both inside (N=20) and outside (N=4) of care in rural Northwestern Virginia were conducted. Rural African American PLWH were queried about their perceptions of the provision of HIV health care services, barriers to linkages to care, retention of PLWH in care, and recommendations for improving HIV health care services for rural PLWH.
Participants offered insights on the linkages to health and mental health care consistent with the pattern recommended by the cascade of care (i.e. pre-screening, testing, refer to treatment, treatment and sustain treatment). Participants identified contextual factors, including traumatic events, medication (side effects), other chronic health issues, issues with the current health and mental health system, stigma, and lack of social support. We highlight PLWH’s recommendations for linking rural PLWH into care and sustaining that care.
We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the rural context.
Rural African Americans living with HIV; Barriers to HIV health care; Rural South; HIV lived experience.
We examined content and expression of Instagram captions of major celebrities who differed according to sex and status, with a focus on determining whether these variables influenced the use of analytic language and cognitive content.
Instagram captions (n=942) were analyzed with the linguistic inquiry and word count (LIWC), which delineated percentage of language reflecting analytical thought and various cognitive mechanisms, such as causality and discrepancy.
Men and low-status persons used more functional analytic language, demonstrating critical thought; in contrast, high-status celebrities showed more causality. Women more than men “qualified” their speech with discrepancy. These findings were not a function of sentence length.
Status increased the tendency to construct and explain, perhaps because higher status celebrities (particularly women) knew that they could hold followers’ attention with complex content. The tendency to write captions that were concrete was seen in those lower-status persons who may have perceived that followers would not wade through a lot of complicated thoughts. Thus, status contributes to the manner in captioning based, perhaps, on having a broader audience willing to read more complex language.
Language use; Status; Instagram; Sex differences in linguistics.
The present study was conducted to extract information about heavy metal pollution in water of Karnaphuli river and to assess the risk to public health occurred from consumption of heavy metal contaminated foodstuff like fish and vegetables collected from the adjacent area of Karnaphuli river which receives a huge amount of industrial and domestic wastes from kalurghat heavy industrial area, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer (Model: Epsilon 5) was used as major analytical technique for determining elemental concentration. For assessing toxicity level of analyzed foodstuffs and associate health risk problem some indices like metal pollution index (MPI), health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) were also estimated.
The mean value of physicochemical properties like pouvoir hydrogène (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), salinity of river water were found 6.8, 745.5 μS/cm, 458.2 mg/L, 747.4 μS respectively showing that those values are much lower than the Department of Environment (DoE) of Bangladesh suggestive value, indicating safe for irrigation but EC and salinity are higher than the DoE suggestive value for drinking water. In water, the mean concentration of heavy metals in Karnaphuli river was found in the sequence of Fe>K>Cr>Mn>Zn>Cu>As=Ni=Hg>Pb. Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, and Mercury concentrations are higher than World Health Organization (WHO) standard 2011, United States Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) 2009 and Bangladesh Standard for drinking water but other elements are within the safe limit. All metal concentrations in water are below the Bangladesh Standard for Irrigation except Iron (Fe). The decreasing trend of heavy metals (mean) in all the vegetable was Fe>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co and for all fish was Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Ca>Se>Co>Cu>K. Metal pollution index (MPI) for fish and vegetable is high enough to cause any detrimental effect on human. Estimated daily intake (EDI) value for fish followed a decreasing sequence Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni=As>Pb and for vegetable samples Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>As respectively. Health risk assessment (HRI), and hazard index (HI) value are less than one for fish but HI value is greater than one for most of the vegetable samples analysed.
From the overall study it can be concluded that the mean value of physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS, salinity) in river water were much lower than the DoE of Bangladesh suggestive value, indicating safe for irrigation but not safe for drinking. Fishes are safer for human consumption than vegetables collected from that particular area and hence, suggested to consume those vegetables at lower amount in the diet to reduce any detrimental effect.
Health risk index (HRI); Hazard index (HI); Metal pollution index (MPI); Toxic effect; Vegetables; Fishes.
One of the most common sphingolipidosis, Gaucher disease (GD) remains rare till date. A case report of a 56-year-old patient diagnosed with GD is presented herein. Her sister was known to have Gaucher disease. Her personal medical record consisted of splenectomy, anemia, recurrent infections, and bone lesions at a young age. Taking into consideration her personal and familial history, the clinical and paraclinical examinations, she was diagnosed with Gaucher disease which was confirmed with enzyme and gene testing. Upon introduction of specific enzyme replacement treatment for Gaucher patients,much evidence demonstrated the substantial improvement of hematological and visceral parameters. However, it has been observed that the bone tissue does not respond equally to the treatment.
• The physician should always investigate the splenomegaly of unknown etiology before deciding to do a splenectomy
• Bone lesions in Gaucher disease are sometimes irreversible, hence the importance of early diagnosis of this rare disease
Gaucher disease; Bone lesion; Splenomeagly.
GD: Gaucher disease; Hb: Hemoglobin; MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; ERT: Enzyme replacement therapy.
Cardiovascular surgery is increasingly performed in children for congenital malformations of the heart and great vessels. Observed as vocal fold immobility, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a well-described complication. As overall outcomes improve and patients live longer, the sequelae of vocal fold immobility amplify insignificance. Families are often unaware of the longterm issues related to vocal fold immobility especially with regard to need for alternative alimentation routes. We report on the incidence of use of feeding tubes, the timing of vocal fold function return and need for additional aerodigestive interventions.
We reviewed 65 patients <2-years who underwent cardiovascular surgery at a tertiary center from 2008-2013 and were diagnosed post-operatively with vocal fold immobility by fiberoptic examination.
Patent ductus arteriosus and hypoplastic left heart syndrome were the most common of the cardiovascular anomalies included. The majority (92%) had unilateral left immobility. Recovery of motion was observed in 29% ranging from 1-month to 3-years. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome had a significant negative correlation with recovery. Forty-six percent required gastrostomy tube placement either to supplement their oral intake or to completely meet their nutritional needs. Forty-eight percent required subsequent aerodigestive surgery including direct laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy (22%), tracheostomy (8%) and vocal fold injection (5%).
Counseling of families and primary care providers regarding the impact of pediatric vocal fold immobility after cardiac surgery should include the high potential requirement for supplemental alimentation as well as the need for feeding and speech therapy. Longitudinal otolaryngology and speech pathology care is imperative with vocal fold immobility since the majority of these patients do not experience functional recovery and may require further interventions over time.
Vocal cord paralysis; Pediatric cardiovascular surgery; Pediatric aerodigestive disorders; Voice; Swallow; Gastrostomy.
Date palm pollen (DPP) is a natural product well-known in folk medicine in the Arab world. It is used to improve the fertility of human beings and studies have tested this activity on rabbits and rats. In the region of Sfax from Tunisia, a huge quantity of DPP could be discarded. Taking into account of the richness of this typical product of different components and of the trend of producing food supplements that could be sold at medium price comparing with the existing product, DPP was analyzed on the basis of physical and chemical properties in order to promote its use as a techno-functional ingredient in the agri-food and pharmaceutical field.
X-ray diffraction showed that DPP is characterized by an amorphous structure which leads to better techno-functional properties while stored in a water-air-tight container. Findings proved that DPP is capable to reduce the surface tension. Collected data from thermal analysis proved that DPP is thermally stable during storage and in different food systems.
The present study demonstrated that DPP could be used in the agri-food and pharmaceutical field. The obtained results help to define the suitable storage conditions of DPP and to predict its behavior when used as an ingredient. DPP can be used as a whole in food formulations or after extracting protein which is the main responsible agent for surfactant property. DPP proteins might be used as a food supplement in commercial sports nutrition products that can be sold at medium prices compared to some existing products.
Date palm pollen; Physico-chemical; Morphology; Surface; Thermal.
To assess reasons for patients being lost-to-care (LTC) at an urban health center (Philadelphia, PA, USA) that provides access to oral tenofovir/emtricitabine(TDF/FTC) as pre- exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) to patients ages 13-30 years through a drop-in model of care.
Ninety-nine patients were identified as LTC based on not visiting a clinician in ≥4 months during the period April 2016-January 2017. Patients were contacted by phone/email to participate in a voluntary telephone survey regarding reasons for falling out of care. Results were analyzed descriptively.
Of the 99 patients preliminarily identified as LTC, 19 completed the survey. Reason(s) for becoming LTC included: 47%(9) relocation, 11%(2) transportation difficulties to/from clinic, 26%(5) financial/insurance problems, 5%(1) perceived medication side effects, 16%(3) trouble remembering to attend appointments regularly, 5%(1) difficulty with daily medication adherence, and 0% social stigma. Furthermore, 21%(4) remain at high-risk of HIV/STI acquisition after becoming LTC. The main study limitations are selection bias and small sample size, where the small sample size did not allow for statistical significance.
While the major cause for becoming LTC was relocation, these findings suggest 37% of LTC incidences may be preventable with additional/up-front support. Because 21% of LTC patients remain at high-risk of HIV/STI acquisition, proactive re-engagement initiatives are potentially useful.
HIV/AIDS; Pre-exposure prophylaxis; Retention and care; Socioeconomic factors; Adolescent Health; Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender Persons.
Music therapy (MT) is part of the care plan in many end-of-life (EOL) settings, though several authors remain cautious about its effectiveness to improve EOL symptoms and patient well-being.
Our primary goal was to design and test the feasibility of a clinical trial protocol that would address the main critiques of MT trials previously reported in the literature.
We conducted a literature review guided by the questions: (1) What is the set of indicators and tools that can be used to measure effectiveness of MT for seniors in palliative care and EOL settings? (2) What are the characteristics of a well-designed clinical trial protocol that can measure effectiveness of MT in palliative care and EOL settings and can be used for a future large scale study? Based on best practices from the review, we developed a clinical trial protocol and tested its feasibility.
Ten participants were accrued. Approximately 25% of eligible participants chose to participate. The consent rate was 55% with 70% of participants completing all MT sessions. All participants completed more than 60% of questionnaires.
Although our protocol could not be considered feasible based on the parameters we originally set, we argue that our study provides enough data to make adjustments to our original trial protocol, which could lead to the collection of reliable evidence related to the effectiveness of MT for seniors at EOL. We recommend future studies to use block randomization and allocation concealment, focus on one primary outcome and conduct intention-to-treat analysis.
Music Therapy (MT); End-of-Life (EOL); Seniors; Clinical trial; Palliative Performance Scale (PPS); Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE); Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS); Spiritual Health Assessment (SHA).
systematic review based hypothesis
Athletic training education is undergoing many changes since the decision was made to move from the bachelor’s degree to the master’s degree for entry into the profession. Small colleges and universities are reviewing if they choose to transition from an existing undergraduate degree in athletic training to an entry-level Master’s degree; or starting a Master’s program from the ground up. This article will discuss some of the concerns such as student enrollment, CAATE Standards 11 and 41, and institutional resources including hiring of new faculty that need to be reviewed before taking the next step to transitioning or starting a new entry-level Master’s athletic training program. In addition, there will be discussion of the current status of master’s programs and their future.