Bone Grafting, Its Principle and Application: A Review

*Corresponding author: Haben Fesseha* and Yohannes Fesseha

Abstract

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone through transferring bone cells from a donor to the recipient site and the graft could be from a patient’s own body, an artificial, synthetic, or natural substitute. Bone grafts and bone graft substitutes are indicated for a variety of orthopedic abnormalities such as comminuted fractures (due to car accidents, falling from a height or gunshot injury), delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis, osteomyelitis and congenital diseases (rickets, abnormal bone development) and are used to provide structural support and enhance bone healing. Autogenous, allogeneic, and artificial bone grafts are common types and sources of grafts and the advancement of allografts, synthetic bone grafts, and new operative techniques may have influenced the use of bone grafts in recent years. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone grafting and help bone tissue to regenerate completely. A bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs, and sternum. An ideal bone graft substitutes should be biologically inert, readily available, must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, provide mechanical support, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and substituted by the host bone. Bone banks are the source of bone grafts and implants and necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipment available and the preference of the surgeon. A search for an ideal bone graft is on and may continue time to time.

Keywords

Application; Bone; Bone graft; Bone replacement; Bone bank; Principle.