Balloon Kyphoplasty: Cement Augmentation in Acute Osteoporotic Thoraco-Lumbar Fractures

Abdulrazzaq Alobaid*, Abdulaziz Al-Mutair, Islam Elsayed, Elsayed Mahgoub and Abdullah Al-Shatti

Balloon Kyphoplasty: Cement Augmentation in Acute Osteoporotic Thoraco-Lumbar Fractures

The National Osteoporosis Foundation has estimated that more
than 100 million people worldwide are at a risk of developing fractures
secondary to osteoporosis.

Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures constitute a major healthcare
problem in the Western Countries, not only because of the high
incidence of these lesions, but also due to their direct and indirect
negative implications on the patient’s quality of life owing
to health concerns, and the costs associated with the healthcare system.

Compression fractures lead to a loss in the height of the
vertebral segment, and the resulting spinal deformity can lead to
a decrease in the pulmonary capacity and mobility, malnutrition and depression.

Kyphosis secondary to the osteoporotic vertebral
compression fractures attributes a 2 to 3 times greater incidence of
death primarily on account of pulmonary causes.

Although, the usual treatment strategy for an osteoporotic vertebral
compression fracture may be bedrest, the application
of analgesics, and bracing, some fractures may lead to progressive
deformity and a debilitating pain.

Several techniques have been developed for simpler and
safer procedures during the last 2 decades.
Techniques of vertebral body augmentation have been developed
in an effort to treat these refractory cases.

The high-pressure injection of low-viscosity poly-methylemethacrylate poses
potential risks for neural compromise and pulmonary embolism
due to uncontrolled leakage.

Therefore, balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty,
using a large cannula low-pressure injection of PMMA
in a high viscosity state has been introduced.

Orthop Res Traumatol Open J. 2017; 3(1): 1-19. doi: 10.17140/ORTOJ-3-111