Avianomics: The Beginning at the End.
Several techniques are frequently used in proteomics including 2-hybrid systems, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Systems biology is a scientific approach that
takes into account the complex relationships among and between genes and proteins and determines how all of these interactions come together to form a functional organism. Proteomic tools can simultaneously probe the properties of numerous proteins and thus are a great aid to the emerging field of systems biology, in which the functional interactions of numerous proteins are
studied instead of studying individual proteins as isolated entities. In the field of avian biology, proteomics has been used to study different processes from the development, growth, and function
of organs and systems to the interactions of infectious agents and the altered states that they induce in their hosts.
Transcriptomics has the ability to play a key role in many aspects of avian welfare. For example, a transcriptome analysis reveals that stocking density affects the expression of genes involved in several metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, proteolysis, immune stress, muscle development, cell adhesion, matrix, and collagen. Several studies showed different transcriptome profiles in various chicken tissues in response to high ambient temperature. They identified Angiopoietin-like-4 gene as a candidate for the improvement of heat tolerance in chickens.
In the breast, both cold and heat stress activated calcium-dependent metabolic adaptations. Also within the breast, but specific to cold stress, the activation of ErbB signaling as well as dynamic patterns of phosphorylation.
Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2020; 6(2): 70-78. doi: 10.17140/AFTNSOJ-6-171