Adipokines-AMPK Cross-Talk in Avian Species: A Translational Model for Human Obesity

Alissa Piekarski-Welsher*, Walter Bottje and Sami Dridi

Adipokines-AMPK Cross-Talk in Avian Species: A Translational Model for Human Obesity.

The adipokines adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin play pivotal roles in obesity, insulin resistance and related inflammatory disorders. Leptin regulates energy balance through its anorexigenic effects in the hypothalamus. In obesity, leptin sensitivity decreases although it has high circulating levels.

These results, along with others, show that food intake and nutrient metabolism are regulated by the AMPK pathway15 as shown in a fasting study that resulted inactivation of AMPK whereas
re-feeding inhibited AMPK activity in mice.16 Feed efficiency in poultry, is an important
economic and agricultural trait, therefore, understanding its underlying signaling pathways is critical. 1) SOCS3 inhibiting IRS1, this inhibits insulin signaling, affecting growth; 2) SOCS3 inhibiting LEPR, leptin has a range of biological effects, most notably in metabolic regulation which suppresses appetite, reduces energy intake, increasing energy expenditure, and inhibiting fat synthesis; 3) SOCS3 inhibits JAK, this pathway is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune regulation, and other important biological processes.

The past two decades have seen a surge in obesity and obesity related illness. Due to its role in cardiovascular disease, airway disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, hypertension, and
fatty liver disease. Obesity is one of the most important diseases afflicting modern society today. Efforts to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease have become paramount and adipocytokine therapy tops that list. Dysfunction of this pathway may be a key factor in obesity-related illness and, subsequently, its treatment.

Although pathways affecting satiety and feeding upstream of AMPK are somewhat understood, there remains much to gather about the downstream effects of such pathways in both mammals and avian species. Therefore, while much is known about adipocytokines as well as their relation to obesity-linked illness, much has yet to be elucidated.

Obes Res Open J. 2016; 3(2): 40-42.doi: 10.17140/OROJ-3-126