Adipocytokines: A Potential Link Between Obesity and CNS Disorders

Nadia Hafizi, Elham Alipoor and Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar*

Adipocytokines: A Potential Link Between Obesity and CNS Disorders.

Epidemiological evidence supports the increased risk of the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and some types of cancers with obesity.1 Studies in neurological disorders have also suggested the potential contribution of obesity in developing structural pathologies in the brain in different life stages.

Adipocytes can produce and release some water soluble peptides, adipocytokines, such as leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin,9 inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta, and interleukins (e.g., IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IL8), and some components of the complement system.10 White adipose tissue deposition may lead to systemic inflammatory state due the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines. Obesity associated inflammation could be deleterious for blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and predispose of penetration of inflammatory molecules. Abnormal increased concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the local micro-environment of brain parenchyma would be a major contributor of neurological disorders.

Although, adiponectin levels remained unchanged in some investigations in Parkinson’s disease (PD),18,19 other studies supported a protective effect of treatment with recombinant adiponectin against neurodegeneration.20 It seems that understanding the relationship between adiponectin with neurodegenerative and CVD is complex and requires more studies.

There are also other studies discussing the potential role of other adipocytokines including leptin and resistin in CNS. However, the data obtained from studies on adipocytokines in neurological disorders are still contradictory and unclear. Considering the increasing number of newly identified adipokines and adipocytokines, and their possible link with the onset or exacerbation of
neurological diseases, is a great field of study to investigate the potential causative, diagnostic or therapeutic role of these adipose derived peptides in CNS disorders.

Obes Res Open J. 2017; 4(2): e7-e9. doi: 10.17140/OROJ-4-e011