A Review of Vaccine Efficacy Measures

Sayan Dasgupta*

A Review of Vaccine Efficacy Measures

One of the crucial chapters in the history of science is the
advancement of vaccine research and their impact on human longevity and health.

History of modern vaccination officially began with the discovery of smallpox immunization by Edward
Jenner in the late 18th century.2
Since then, substantial progress has been achieved in the prevention of infectious diseases with inactivated vaccines, and a number of major disease agents have been controlled (most notably, smallpox, poliomyelitis, rabies, diphtheria, tetanus, per-tussis, measles, mumps, and rubella).

Progress in vaccine research has resulted in a significant decrease in infection-associated morbidity and mortality, and as knowledge of microbiology and immunology began to grow through the 20th century, the science of vaccinology continued to rapidly evolve, putting more emphasis on the importance of developing safe and effective strategies for infectious disease prevention in the 21st century.

One important discussion in the public health community is regarding how to optimally assess and measure the full public health value of preventive vaccines and incorporate that knowledge into the evidence-based decision-making process of vaccine licensure and recommendations for public health use.

Thus, before each new vaccine is considered for licensure, the crucial question that needs to be addressed satisfactorily is “How well does the
candidate vaccine prevent the disease?” This question, seemingly basic often becomes quite complex to answer for health practitioners.

One key step to remedy that is to enhance knowledge and understanding
of vaccine epidemiology among health practitioners, as
well as policy makers, public health experts, etc. It has also been
argued that such knowledge will benefit the society through informed
decision-making and improved vaccination coverage

Vaccin Res Open J. 2019; 4(1): 1-4. doi: 10.17140/VROJ-4-110