A Review of Martial Arts and Bone Health Status in Young and Older Population

Samsudin Norsuriani*

A Review of Martial Arts and Bone Health Status in Young and Older Population.

Bone is a metabolically active tissue that undergoes a continuous remodelling throughout its life cycle. The endogenic factors which can influence the accumulation of bone mineral in humans are heredity, ethnicity, gender and endocrine status. Meanwhile, the exogenic factors are nutrition and physical activity.

Peak bone mass is attained during the second and third decades of life. Sports participation can lead to adaptive changes that improve bone architecture through increased density and enhanced geometric properties. Hara et al4 suggested that physical activities are the strongest determinant of high peak bone mass in young adults at pre-puberty and puberty. Furthermore, physical activity begun during the teenage years could also be useful for preventing osteoporosis and improving future quality of life of an individual.

According to Haapasalo et al9 loading exercises enhance bone mass, and it is necessary to have more weight on bones than common weights that occur in daily life. The osteogenic responses
on the skeleton are specific to the region of mechanical stress, and the responses can be triggered by exercises. Exercise can increase the rate of osteogenesis and subsequently increase bone mineral

In ancient times, martial arts were practiced for self-defence, however, nowadays they are practiced for improvement in physical fitness level as well.13 According to Bu et al14, there are about 200
distinct disciplines of martial arts, and different facets of disciplines make them unique and special. All these disciplines share a common goal, i.e. to defend oneself from physical threat. Nowadays, martial arts are studied for various reasons, including fitness and self-defence enhancement, mental discipline, character development, and as a complementary or alternative therapy for some
medical conditions.

Sport Exerc Med Open J. 2018; 4(3): 58-62. doi: 10.17140/SEMOJ-4-162