Yanfu Shao, MD

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology
Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
101 Augusta Drive, Moorestown, NJ 08057, USA

Biography

Education and Training

Educational Background
Residency, Anesthesiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2001
Research Fellowship, Cardiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 1994
Fellowship, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 1990
Fellowship, Cardiothoracic Surgery, LDS Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 1989
Fellowship, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Beijing Heart, Lung & Blood Vessel Medical Center, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China, 1987
Residency, Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China, 1985
MD, Henan Medical University, Zhengzhou, China, 1982
Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou Engineering College, Henan, China, 1976

Certifications
Anesthesiology
Echocardiography
Sub-specialty of Advanced Perioperative
Sub-specialty of Transesophageal
Sub-specialty of Echocardiography

Research Interest

His research interest includes: Anesthesiology.

Scientific Activities

ACADEMIC HONORS AND AWARDS

APPOINTMENTS (Chronological order)

ACADEMIC

Assistant Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery Capital University of Medical Science 12/1987-11/1988
Research Assistant Professor of Cardiology University of Cincinnati 12/1994-06/1997
Assistant Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, The Ohio State University 08/2002-10/2011
Associate Professor of Anesthesiology Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University 11/2011 – [Present]

Academic Service

Director, Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) 04/2015- [Present] Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University

HOSPITAL (include type of appointment, directorships, etc.)

Staff Anesthesiologist Fairfield Medical Center Lancaster, Ohio [07/2001-07-2002]
Attending, Cardiothoracic Anesthesia The Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC) Columbus, Ohio [08/2002-10/2011]
Attending, Ross Heart Hospital of OSUMC Columbus, Ohio [08/2002-10/2011]
Attending, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard Solove Research Institute of OSUMC, Columbus, Ohio [08/2002-10/2011]
Attending, Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, Temple University Hospital 11/2011-[Present]

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

EDUCATIONAL (List all teaching activities, site where performed and approximate time devoted to each)
Assistant Professor in anesthesiology, OSUMC [8/2002-10/2011] In this capacity, I have been teaching anesthesia residents and cardiothoracic anesthesia follows, devoting 5 to 10% of my time
Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University. In this capacity have been teaching resident, fellow and faculty (TEE topics) 11/2011 – [Present]
Director, Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography 4/2015 – [Present] In this capacity I have been: 1) doing the biweekly and monthly TEE education for member of Cardiac Anesthesia team by sending out TEE topics/review articles/points of discussion to CV anesthesia faculty every two to four weeks; 2) teaching TEE to anesthesia residents by delivering didactic lectures and hands-on education in OR; and 3) delivering didactic lectures and hands-on teaching TEE to CV anesthesia fellow in OR. 4) produced An Atlas of TEE Images for a Basic Perioperative Examination , which is a reference for residents, fellow and faculty to learn basic TEE images for hemodynamic unstable non-cardiac surgery cases.

RESIDENT ADVISOR

Department of Anesthesiology, OSUMC [2003-2011]

MEMBERSHIP ON SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM COMMITTEES

Scientific Program Committee of the International Chinese Cardiovascular Anesthesia Forum 2008 – [present]
Chair, The scientific program of transesophageal echocardiography review course 1998
Co-chair, The scientific program committee of The Sino-American Anesthesiologists Co-operative Review Course 2010 – [present]
Member of the scientific program committee of 11th Meeting of Asian Society of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists (ASCA), 2015
Member of Organizing Committee of the World Congress on Surgery and Anesthesia [2016-2017]

Clinical Activity

As an Attending, Assistant Professor and Associate Professor of Anesthesiology with cardiac anesthesia as subspecialty, I spent about 90% of my time for delivering anesthesia for the cardiothoracic surgery/general surgery.

RESEARCH

GRANT SUPPORT HISTORY (List grant name, dates of awards, direct costs)

Funding agent: American Heart Association
Number: AHA grand-in-aid-1996
Grand Name: Mechanism of left atrial dysfunction in atrial myopathy and recovery
Funding period: 7/1996-6/1998
Aim of the research project: to fully characterize the functional morphometric and blood flow changes that occur with both the development of and recovery from atial tachycardiomyopathy
Cost: $ 30,000
Role: Principal investigator

Publications

PUBLICATIONS: (PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE)

1. Shao Y, Yang NS, Sun YQ, Chen BT, Zhou QW, Wu YK. Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease in infants and children: a report of 106 cases. Chin J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 3:21-27, 1987.
2. Shao Y, Yang NS, Wang HL, Chen BT, Wu YK. Bilateral phrenic paralysis after open heart surgery in children: diagnosis and management of four cases. Chin J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 4:42-47, 1988.
3. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of loading conditions and contractile state on pulmonary venous flow: validation of Doppler velocimetry. Circulation 86:651-659, 1992.
4. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Tsai LM Gabel M, Walsh RA. Altered left atrial compliance after atrial appendectomy: influence on left atrial and ventricular filling. Circ Res 72:167-175, 1993.
5. Hoit BD, Shao Y, McMannis K, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Determination left atrial volume using sonomicrometry: A cast validation study. Am J Physiol 264:H1011-1061, 1993
6. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA, Millard, R. Comparative assessment of regional left atrial perfusion by laser Doppler and radionuclide microsphere techniques. Cardiovasc Res 27:508-514, 1993.
7. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of pericardium on left atrial compliance and pulmonary venous flow. Am J Physiol, 264:H1781-1787, 1993.
8. Hoit BD, Shao Y, K McMannis, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Determination of left atrial volume using sonomicrometry: a cast validation study. AM J Physiol-Heart Circulatory physiol 264 (3) H1011-H1016, 1993
9. Hoit BD, Walsh RA, Y Shao, Millard R. Comparative assessment of regional left atrial perfusion by laser Doppler and radionuclide microsphere techniques. Cardiovasc Res 27 (3) 508-514, 1993.
10. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. In vivo assessment of left atrial contractile performance in normal and pathologic conditions using a time-varying elastance model. Circulation 89:1829-1838, 1994.
11. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of pericardium on left atrial compliance and pulmonary venous flows. Am J Physiol, 264:H1781-H1787, 1994.
12. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel. Influence of acute altered loading condition on left atrial appendage flow velocity. JACC 24 (4) 1117-1123, 1994
13. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Kinoshita A, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Effects of angiotensin II generated by an ACE independent pathway on left ventricular performance in the conscious baboon. J Clin Invest 95:1519-1527, 1995.
14. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Disparate effects of early pressure overload hypertrophy on velocity and force dependent indices of ventricular performance in the conscious baboon. Circulation 91:1213-1220, 1995.
15. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of acutely altered loading condition on left atrial appendage flow velocities. J Am Coll Cardiology 24:1117-1123, 1995.
16. Gerson MC, Shao Y, Gabel M, Huth C, Hiot BD, Walsh RA. Load independence on radionuclide diastolic filling measurements in acute coronary occlusion. J Nucl Cardiol 2:491-498, 1995
17. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Left atrial mechanical and biochemical adaptation to pacing-induced cardiomyopathic heart failure. Cardiovasc Res 29:469-474, 1995.
18. Khoury SF, Hoit BD, Dave V, Pawloski-dahm CM, Shao Y, Gabel M. Effects of thyroid hormone on left ventricular performance and regulation of contractile and Ca2+-cycling protein in the baboon implication for the force-frequency and relaxation-frequency relationships. Clin Res 79 (4) 727-735, 1996
19. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Walsh RA. Global and regional atrial function after rapid atrial pacing: An Echo Doppler Study. J Am Society Echocardiography. 10:805-810, 1996.
20. Shao Y, Zia UK, Gabel M, Hoit BD, Walsh RA, Gerson MC. Effects of inotropic and load conditions on radionuclide diastolic indices with pacing-induced cardiomyopathic heart failure. J Noninv Cardiol 2:18-24, 1997.
21. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel. Left atrial systolic and diastolic function after cessation of pacing in tachycardia-induced heart failure. Am J Physiol-heart Circulatory physiol 273 (2) H921-H927, 1997
22. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M. Global and regional atrial function after rapid atrial pacing: an echo Doppler study. J AM Soc Echocardiogr 10 (8) 805-810, 1997.
23. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel. Left atrial systolic and diastolic function accompanying chronic rapid pacing induced atrial failure. Am J of Physiol-Heart Vascul Physiol 275 (1) H183-H189, 1998
24. Work in progress
1. Acute retrograde type A aortic dissection developed after a thoracic endovascular repair of type B aortic dissection (presented orally and as a poster in SCA in April 2016)
2. Iatrogenic type B aortic dissection caused by cannulation of the ascending aorta for cardiopulmonary bypass during lung translation (presented as a poster in the annual meeting of ASA, Chicago 2016)

OTHER ARTICLES (PEER REVIEWED)

1. Shao Y. Transesophageal Echocardiography in Cardiac Anesthesia and Current Practice in the USA. In: Cardiovascular Anesthesia Chapter in the Symposium of Annual Refresher Course Lectures of Chinese Society of Anesthesiology (CSA) p393-396. 2005
2. Shao Y. Why and How to perform a comprehensive intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography examination – the current recommendation in USA. In: Cardiovascular Anesthesia chapter in the Symposium of Annual Refresher Course Lectures of CSA. p68-71. 2006.
3. Shao Y. Why and How to perform a fast and efficient abbreviated or basic intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography examination – the current recommendation in UAS. In: Cardiovascular Anesthesia chapter in the Symposium of Annual Refresher Course Lectures of CSA. P128-130. 2007.
4. Shao Y. Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography for Hemodynamic Instability during Separation of the Patient from Cardiopulmonary Bypass. In: Cardiac Anesthesia chapter in the Symposium of Annual Refresher Course Lectures of CSA. P238-240. 2008.
5. Shao Y. The Clinical Importance of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography for Assessing Ventricular Diastolic function. 2009 Annual Meeting Annual Refresher Course Lectures Symposium of CSA. p166-145, 2009
6. Shao Y. The Importance of Right Ventricular Function in Cardiac Surgery and Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography to Assess Right Side of the Heart. 2010 Annual Meeting Refresher Course Lecture Symposium of CSA, p1-4, 2010.
7. Shao Y. Use of transesophageal echocardiography for hemodynamic instability during separation of the patient from cardiopulmonary bypass. 12th International Congress of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia Symposium p13, 2010
8. Shao Y. Negative pressure pulmonary edema – an Underdiagnosed Entity? Symposium of The First Global Congress of Chinese Anesthesiologists p145-150, 2011
9. Shao Y. Why and how to perform a comprehensive intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography examination and current standard in U.S.A. The Symposium of 2nd International Conference of Visual Technology Utiliaztion in Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Emergency Medicine. p74-77, 2012
10. Shao Y. The importance of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography for assessing ventricular diastolic function. The 2nd International Conference of Visual Technology Utilization in Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Emergency Medicine. P86-89. July 2012
11. Shao Y. Use of transesophageal echocardiography for coronary artery disease in perioperative setting. The Symposium of the Chinese Association of Anesthesiologists 2013 Annual Meeting. P98-100. April 2013
12. Shao Y. Anesthetic consideration for total endoscopic robotic and minimal invasive cardiac Surgery – Current practice in the USA. The 21st Annual Meeting Refresher Course Lecture Symposium of CSA p321-326, Sept. 2013
13. Shao Y. Negative pulmonary edema and perioperative management – an underdiagnosed anesthetic complication. The 23nd Annual Meeting Refresher Course Lectures Symposium of CSA p288-290, Sept 2015
14. Shao Y. Update of guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination and for patient safety use of an image acquisition sequence to avoid missing important images. The 24th Annual Meeting of CSA Refresher Course Lectures Symposium p88-91, August 2016

BOOKS, MONOGRAPHS, CHAPTERS

1. Shao Y. Chapter: Anesthesia for vascular surgery. In: Evidence-Based Practice of Anesthesiology (Eds: Hu L, Zhou D, and Xia Y). People’s Medical Publishing House. Beijing, 2007
2. Shao Y. Anesthetic consideration for total endoscopic robotic mitral valve repair. P93 In: Cases for Anesthesia Oral Examination (Eds: Tong C and Yu W). Shanghai health publisher. Shanghai, 2016
3. Shao Y. Anesthetic consideration for coronary artery bypass graft: In: Cases for Anesthesia Oral Examination (Eds: Tong C and Yu W). Shanghai health publisher. Shanghai, 2017. In printing
4. Hinds, Lauren and Shao Y. Chapter 7: Sedation service and monitoring anesthesia care in the Textbook of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine. In progress

ABSTRACTS (Note whether presented platform, presented poster or published and not presented)

1. Hoit BD, McMannis K, Gabel M, Shao Y, Walsh RA. Influence of left atrial pressure on pulmonary venous flow. Clin. Res 39:202A, 1991.
2. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of myocardial contractile dysfunction on the pattern of pulmonary venous flow. Circulation 84: II-369, 1991.
3. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of loading conditions and myocardial contractile function on the pattern of pulmonary venous flow. Clin Res 39:693A, 1991.
4. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Millard RW, Gabel M, Prater, Walsh RA. Concordance of regional atrial microcirculatory flux and atrial microsphere blood flow. Clin Res 39:693A, 1991
5. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Differential regional left atrial distensibility. J Am Coll Cardiol 19: 387A, 1992.
6. Hoit BD, Bauer B, Shao Y, Babel M, Kinoshita A, Urata H, Hussain A, Walsh RA. Hemodynamic effects of angiotensin II-forming chynase in conscious baboons. Clin Res 40: 315A, 1992
7. Shao Y, Walsh RA, Gabel M, Hoit BD. Determination of left atrial volume using sono-micrometry: a cast validation study. Clin Res 40:682A, 1992.
8. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Influence of the pericardium on left atrial compliance and function. Clin Res 40: 365A, 1992.
9. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Urata H, Hussain A, Walsh RA. Hemodynamic effects of an angiotensin II-forming chymase in conscious baboons with high rennin hypertension. Circulation 86: I-432, 1992.
10. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Tsai LM, Patel R, Gabel M, McMannis, Walsh RA. Influence of left atrial compliance on left atrial and ventricular filling. Circulation 86: I-554, 1992. .
11. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Time varying elastance of the intact left atrium. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 411A, 1993. .
12. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Assessment of left atrial contractile performance using a time varing elastance model. Clin Res 41: (2) 230A, 1993. .
13. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Systolic and diastolic function in conscious baboons with early pressure overloads hypertrophy. Clin Res 41: (3) 633A, 1993. .
14. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Drugan J, Walsh RA. Left atrial myosin heavy chain isoform switched and function in canine cardiomyopathic heart failure. Circulation 88: I-245 1993.
15. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Husain A, Walsh RA. Direct effects of chymase generated angiotensin II upon normal and hypertrophied baboon hearts. Circulation 88: I-118, 1993.
16. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M. Loading and cardiac methanical determinants of left atrial appendage Doppler flow velocities. J Am Coll Cardiol 23: 280A, 1994.
17. Shao Y, Hoit BD, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Effect of altered load on in vivo left atrial elastance determinations. Clin Res 42:324A, 1994.
18. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Left atrial pressure-volume work in canine cardiomyopathy. Circulation 90: I-431, 1994.
19. Dave V, Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Periasamy M, Walsh RA. Sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression and cardiac mechanics in primate early pressure overload hypertrophy. Circulation 90:I-318, 1994.
20. Shao Y, Hoit BD, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Left atrial elastance determinations are independent of the method used to alter loading conditions. J Invest Med 43(3): 319A, 1995.
21. Shao Y, Hoit BD, Gabel M. Effects of rapid pacing-induced heart failure and regression of heart failure on left atrial chamber compliance and reservoir function. J Invest Med 43:428A, 1995.
22. Gerson MC, Shao Y, Hoit BD, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Radionuclide assessment of left ventricular active relaxation and load with regional myocardial ischemia. J Nuc Med 2:S71, 1995.
23. Shao Y, Garson MC, Hoit BD, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Effects of inotropic and load conditions on radionuclide diastolic indices with pacing-induced cardiomyopathic heart failure. J Invest Med 43(2):317A, 1995.
24. Shao Y, Hiot BD, Babel M. Effects of rapid pacing-induced heart failure and regression of heart failure on chamber compliance and reservoir function. Clin Res 43:428A, 1995
25. Khoury SF, Hoit BD, Shao Y, Babel M, Liggett SB, Walsh RA. Differential cardiac B adrenergic subtype density and the sensitivity of left ventricular function to catecholamines in thyrotoxic baboons. Circulation 92:I-668, 1995.
26. Hoit BD, Khoury SF, Shao Y, Babel M, Dave V, Periasamy M, Walsh RA. Enhancement of the force-frequency relation by thyroid hormone is correlated with contractile and calcium cycling protein expression in conscious baboons. Circulation 92:I-254, 1995
27. Shao Y, Hoit BD, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Left atrial elastance determinations are independent of the method used to alter loading conditions. J Invest Med 43(2):319A, 1995
28. Shao Y, Gerson MC, Hoit BD, Gabel M, Walsh RA. Radiomuclide assessment of left ventricular active relaxation and load with regional myocardial myocardial ischemia. J Nuc Med 2:S71, 1995
29. Hoit BD, Shao Y, Gabel M, Kirkpatrick DL, Paul K, Walsh RA. Left atrial biochemical and mechanical changes after regression of pacing induced heart failure: relation to left ventricular function. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:323A, 1996
30. Shao Y, Gabel M, Khan Z, Walsh RA, Hoit BD. Characterization of left atrial reservoir conduit and booster pump function in a novel modal of isolated atrial myopathy. J Invest Med 44:351A, 1996.
31. Shao Y, Gravlee G, Gerharht M, Turner K, Awad H, Hachwa B, Howie M. Right ventricular intramural hematoma after aortic valve replacement – A case report. Anesth Analg 100-SCA 110, 2005
32. Shao Y, Gravlee G, Gerhardt G. Left atrial compression by collapsed left upper lobe lung causes acute pulmonary hypertension after cardiopulmonary bypass – A case report. Anesth Analg SCA p114, 2007
33. Shao Y. Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography for Hemodynamic Instability during Separation of the Patient from Cardiopulmonary Bypass. In: Cardiac Anesthesia chapter in the Symposium of Annual Refresher Course Lectures of CSA. p238, 2008.
34. Shao Y. The Clinical Importance of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography for Assessing Ventricular Diastolic function. 2009 Annual Meeting Annual Refresher Course Lectures Symposium of CSA. p166-145, 2009
35. Shao Y. The Importance of Right Ventricular Function in Cardiac Surgery and Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography to Assess Right Side of the Heart. 2010 Annual Meeting Refresher Course Lecture Symposium of CSA, p1, 2010.
36. Shao Y. Use of transesophageal echocardiography for hemodynamic instability during separation of the patient from cardiopulmonary bypass. 12th International Congress of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia Symposium p13, 2010
37. Shao Y. Negative pressure pulmonary edema – an underdiagnosed entity? Meeting Symposium of The First Global Congress of Chinese Anesthesiologists p145, 2011
38. Shao Y. Why and how to perform a comprehensive intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography examination and current standard in U.S.A. The symposium of the 2nd International Conference of Visual Technology Utilization in Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Emergency Medicine. p74, 2012
39. Shao Y. The importance of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography for assessing ventricular diastolic function. The Symposium of the 2nd International Conference of Visual Technology Utilization in Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Emergency Medicine p199, 2012
40. Shao Y. Use of transesophageal echocardiography for coronary artery disease in perioperative setting. The Symposium of the Chinese Association of Anesthesiologists 2013 Annual Meeting, p98, 2013
41. Shao Y. Anesthetic consideration for total endoscopic robotic and minimal invasive cardiac Surgery – Current practice in the USA. The Symposium of 21st Annual Meeting Lectures of CSA p141, 2013
42. Shao Y. How and why to perform a comprehensive intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. The Symposium of 22nd Annual Meeting lectures of CSA p68, 2014
43. Shao Y. Update of strategy in management of hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation. The Meeting Symposium of the 5th Sino-American Anesthesiologists Co-operative Review Course and Capital Medical University Anesthesia Annual Meeting p132, 2014
44. Shao Y. Ultrasonic monitoring left ventricular morphology and function. Abstracts for Invited Lectures of 11th Meeting of Asian Society of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists p64, 2015
45. Shao Y. Negative pulmonary edema and perioperative management – an underdiagnosed anesthetic complication. The Abstracts for Invited Lectures of 23rd Annual Meeting lectures of CSA p288, 2015
46. Shao Y. Update of guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination and for patient safety use of an image acquisition sequence to avoid missing important images. Abstract for invited lectures of 24th Annual Meeting of CSA p88, 2016
47. Acute retrograde type A aortic dissection developed after a thoracic endovascular repair of type B aortic dissection. Resident and Fellow Difficult Cases of 38th SCA Annual Meeting, 2016
48. Iatrogenic type B aortic dissection caused by cannulation of the ascending aorta for cardiopulmonary bypass during lung translation. Clinical Challenge Cases. 2016 ASA annual meeting of Chicago, 2016.
49. Shao Y. Cor triatriatum in progress