Objective: This study aimed to conduct an evaluation of music therapy clinical trials
worldwide, to understand what trials have been conducted and to show the chronological
changes. Additionally, we sought to clarify issues related to providing clinical trial registration
Methods: We searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) database for
“music therapy,” and identified the disease target for each article found.
Results: A total of 150 clinical trial studies were found in the ICTRP using the term “music
therapy.” In these trials, music therapy was used for improvement of social functioning in
schizophrenia and/or serious mental disorders, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and cancer
symptoms. Twenty-five clinical trials were actively recruiting. Sixteen of the 25 trials were
registered in the United States at ClinicalTrials.gov, of which 9 trials were conducted in the US.
Seven trials were conducted in other countries such as Spain, Taiwan, and China.
Conclusion: A search for music therapy clinical trials retrieved 150 trials from the ICTRP, and
the number of clinical trial registrations has increased yearly. Music therapy is widely used in
patients with various diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety, and arthritic pain and
has the potential to improve certain disease outcomes, but there is not enough evidence to
substantiate its efficacy. It is important to enlighten researchers and pharmaceutical companies
on the proper management of the quality of such clinical trial information, as this is an important
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The aim of this work is to characterize olive oils from six algerian cultivars (Azeradj, n=4);
Blanquette, n=7; Bouricha, n=2; Chemlal, n=5; Limli, n=3; Sigoise, n=1) by determining their
fatty acid compositions. The fatty acid composition of oils is determined using gas chromatography
of methyl esters obtained by transesterification of triacylglycerols with 2M KOH/MeOH.
Fourteen fatty acids and squalene are identified in all the samples. Oleic acid (18:1ω9), palmitic
acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and stearic acid (18:0) are the major fatty acids commonly
found in olive oils. Palmitoleic acid (16:1ω7), hypogeic acid (16:1ω9), oleic acid (18:1ω9) and
cis-vaccenic acid (18:1ω7) are considered as separate entities by the European regulation, unlike
the Codex Alimentarius which identifies them as a single component. Six minor fatty acids
namely margaric acid (17:0), margaroleic acid (17:1ω8), arachidic acid (20:0), gondoïque acid
(20:1ω9), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0) are identified. These acids, although
minor, are important for the characterization of cultivars. Oils of different cultivars are characterized
by different fatty acid compositions. All the values of fatty acid compositions are in
compliance with the regulations of the International Olive Oil Council and Codex Alimentarius.
A radial plot enables the analysis and characterization of each variety as a “morphotype”
by creating a “morphogramme”. The “morphogramme” is designed as a radial representation
of each fatty acid (n=14) using an Excel® spreadsheet, and each axis represents the change in
the variable with respect to the mean. The “morphotypes” are real fingerprints of different oil
cultivars. Thus, the oils of Azeradj, Blanquette, Chemlal, Limli and Sigoise cultivars have specific
“morphotype”. The “morphotype” of the Bourricha cultivar is very similar to the Chemlal
cultivar. In addition, the Blanquette “morphotype” is identical to that of the tunisian cultivar
Chetoui. This mode of representation is particularly effective for the rapid visual identification
of characteristics of olive oils.
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Aim: This study develops a quantitative ELISA for measuring Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) produced
by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including foodborne pathogen E. coli
O157:H7 by all commercially available reagents.
Background: Most foodborne outbreak strains of STEC produce Stx2a, Stx2c or both, which
are more frequently associated with human clinical cases, leading to severe gastrointestinal diseases
or even death. However, no simple and cheap assays or kits are available for quantitative
detection of Stx2a and Stx2c. Therefore, an easy and affordable quantitative method for Stx2 is
needed for its pathogenesis study.
Results: We successfully developed a sensitive and specific receptor-based ELISA by using all
commercial available agents. Hydroxyl acyl ceramide trihexoside, an analogue of Stx2 receptor
globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), was used for antigen capture, and several critical steps were
identified that must be adhered to ensure repeatability. No cross reactivity was observed with
Stx1, and linear curves could be constructed using either purified Stx2a or a bacterial lysate
from an Stx2a-producing E. coli O157:H7 strain. We applied this method to quantify Stx2 production
by a collection of E. coli O157:H7 strains, indicating it can be extended to qualitatively
evaluate Stx2c, and providing evidence that toxin production does not necessarily correlate
with strain phylogeny.
Conclusion: Our R-ELISA provides a reliable way to quantify Stx2a using commercially available
components, and it can also be used for detecting Stx2c. This cost-effective ELISA can be
easily performed, suggesting it will be a useful tool for studying pathogenesis of STEC.
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In developed countries, orofacial pain is one condition in dentistry that has been well defined, explored, and managed. Unfortunately, unlike the grown and developed management of orofacial pain in developed countries, the management of orofacial pain in developing countries is still poorly performed. The current article discusses about the current management of orofacial pain in developing countries. At the time being, there are several factors that are considered to be the etiology of the unsuccessful management of orofacial pain in developing countries. Lack of knowledge about the symptoms of orofacial pain is considered to be one of them. Therefore, educating more people about orofacial pain and its symptoms should be included in the comprehensive plan of orofacial pain management plan in developing countries. As the problem of orofacial pain in developing countries is happening at the root level, the education should not only cover those who are responsible in treating orofacial pain but also the one who might experience orofacial pain. It is expected that the current article will provide a current insight about the management of orofacial pain in developing countries as we as well the current barriers of orofacial pain management. And furthermore, initiates more studies in the field of orofacial pain in developing countries.
In this clinical innovation the Churro jumper has been modified, by inserting it on an auxillary wire which is placed on the mandibular arch, instead of directly placing it on the main arch wire, to improve its efficiency.
Fusion is a developmental anomaly of teeth. It is defined as the dentinal union of two embryologically developing teeth. It is more commonly seen in primary dentition and more frequently in incisor region. This paper reports a rare case which had the presence of bilaterally fused primary central incisor and lateral incisor in the mandibular region.
Introduction: Increasing rates of obesity, diabetes and associated chronic diseases requires implementing a new method of integration for healthy longevity. We have elaborated to take the balance of food, physical activity and mind to achieve a healthy spiritual life by stimulating the self-healing capacity.
Objectives: All 161 registered participants to ARSOA Wellness Fasting from October, 2014 to December 2015 were analyzed.
Methods: About 20-25 participants each time stayed in a mountainous hotel, and received a combination of low-energy vegetarian diet (about 300 kcal intake by fermented vegetable juice per day), physical exercise (2-hour walking, slow training and stretch), meditation, and lectures about healthy life habits in the 4-day program. Facilities, such as foot spar, radon bath, and massage with/without oil were available in free time.
Results: Body weight decreased about 2 kg, and fat percent and muscle volume also decreased during 4 day fasting. Although headache, hungry, gastrointestinal (GI) tract distress, emesis, depressive and cold feeling occurred toward the 2nd day, these symptoms disappeared at the 4th day, and active and vivid feeling increased on the 4th day and after. Skin condition also became good by fasting. Symptoms, mood and body changes interacted and became better later.
Conclusion: Using this regimen, a new practical method of fasting for healthy longevity could be established.
Aim: This study investigates the prevalence of Listeria spp. in fresh produce sold in the Canterbury region of New Zealand.
Background: L. monocytogenes is a common pathogenic bacterium that can be present and grow on fresh produce. Therefore, systematic risk assessment is needed to avoid a food safety scare.
Results: Microbiological analysis to detect Listeria spp. in fresh produce samples showed that lettuce from the retail shops had the highest level (4.2 log cfu/g) >cucumber (3.2 log cfu/g) >cabbage (2.5 log cfu/g) >carrot (nil). In terms of Listeria prevalence, carrot samples had the lowest Listeria spp. load (<1.05 log cfu/g) and lettuce samples had the highest (>4 log cfu/g). None of the samples showed a positive result for L. monocytogenes presence.
Conclusion: Although the L. monocytogenes was not detected in this study, the potential hazard for contaminating fresh produce by this organism still exist due to high prevalence of Listeria spp.
Diagnosing and treating additional health problems in autistic children or adults, beyond their own autism troubles, is always a challenge under first of parent responsibility. This paper reports on the success of nutrition-based therapeutic approaches for improving the health and solving digestive troubles of a communicating-impaired and initially overweight patient. Symptoms include frequent burping, and diagnoses revealed hiatal hernia and stomach ulcers. Two different diet plans have been successively applied over one year. Each half-year diet impact has been home-monitored by measuring the body-mass data and index. Details on nutrition, supplement and drug intakes, as well as any observations were daily recorded. The first halfyear diet was based on gastroesophageal reflux preventing recommendations, whereas the 2nd diet plan was elaborated from the metabolic typing and gluten intolerance information. Normal body mass index (BMI) values (20-25) were reached during the 1st phase, which was marked by an increase in the intake of food supplement and a reduction in the frequency of drug intakes, especially from the 4th month. After one-year of nutrition-based therapy, the patient health has been generally improved, and the hiatal hernia and ulcer problems have disappeared. A database containing all information recorded throughout the diet plans was created. During the patient body-mass loss, the muscle part increased whereas the fat part dropped. Such fat mass loss observed over the 1st 4 months was possibly correlated to the intake frequency diminution of proton pump inhibitor, acting against the gastric acid secretion. During last 6-months of strict nutrition therapy, the body mass remained stable.
Objectives: When using dental handpieces (HP), a phenomenon of backflow leads to an external and internal soiling and contamination of HP, especially in their narrow air/water pipes. To prevent any cross-infection, HP need to be sterilized after a thorough cleaning. This work aims to establish and assess a method for testing their cleaning. Indeed, there is a methodological gap concerning its validation because of their complex architecture.
Materials and Methods: This method is declined into a protocol using artificial soilings and ninhydrin tests. Its evaluation with a washer-disinfector-lubricator-dryer (WDLD) within 2 cleaning cycles with each 6 HP and after control tests, heads to validate its relevance and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the cleaning provided.
Results: After each cycle, all HP were externally clean. Our method also showed an internal cleanliness except for 2 HP whose engines in the automaton were defective.
Conclusion: This work fits with the improvement of infection control in dental practices. It is the first method developed to control the internal cleaning of HP without having to break them, and it demonstrates the need for HP to be put into an internal rotation during their cleaning. It fills the methodological gaps concerning their cleaning and allows assessing HP cleaning from dedicated WDLD. According to standard NF EN ISO15883, the method could be used for initial steps of operational or performances qualifications concerning HP cleaning.
Consumers of products preferably demand minimally processed products that do not contain chemical preservatives and maintain health benefits. These encourage the use of dietary fiber (DF) to combat some metabolic disorders like diabetes and other immunological compromisings. This study indicates the potential of DF to satisfy the lowering of estimated glycemic index from improved white bread. The sources were selected from crude fiber composition of different cereals and fruits. Fruits of ripen avocado mesocarps and baobab pulps composed of total pectin composition 13%, 30% respectively and selected as good sources. Analysis of total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) were carried out according to the manufacturer megazyme total dietary fiber kit protocol and methods described in Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Improvement of DF was observed by enhancing on white breads (WB) based on the daily requirement of soluble fibers (pectin) composition, i.e. 6 g/day. Samples of avocado improved bread (AVB) and baobab improved bread (ADB) were made by mixing in proportion of wheat flour to avocado/baobab pulps (97:3); (94:6); (88:12). Analysis of proximate composition and in vitro estimation of hydrolysis index (HI) and glycemic index (GI) were done for products to evaluate the quality and impact on blood glucose level. Significant differences were observed for predicted GI between improved bread and controls, 82.84±0.37 (WB), 80.63±0.21 (ADB), 78.50±0.30 (AVB). As a result, the reductions in GI for the improved white breads indicate the delay in release of glucose from absorption by the cell due to the viscous nature of dietary fiber component. Thus, the improved white breads with appropriate soluble dietary fiber (pectin) content, reveals the potential for the reduction of blood glucose level and can be considered as functional foods (nutraceuticals) along with its moderate level degree of likeness or sensory acceptability. In general, the study has indicated that the soluble fibres can have a potential to reduce the postprandial glucose by delaying absorption in cells.
It is widely known that athletes used to rely on training and good nutrition to provide maximum results. But now to maintain a competitive edge, athletes are switching to nutraceuticals. They are dietary supplements that provide health benefits. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements are now commonly used to enhance and improve the health and performance of athletes. This has triggered the sale of nutraceuticals in the market and stores and gyms are selling hundreds of different supplements. These nutritional supplements usually claim to improve strength, performance and stamina, help build lean muscle, and help to burn excess fat. There are many health and nutritional supplements available in the market for the athletes. It is a difficult choice to choose the suitable and appropriate nutraceutical for oneself. The present article will introduce the athlete to a variety of different nutritional health supplements available in the market including fat burners, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), numerous essential fatty acids (EFAs), creatine, whey proteins, glutamine, Tribulusterrestris, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), methoxyIsoflavone, and Cordyceps.
Aim: Oral health can affect the quality of life (QoL), and the oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) index utility to assess this impact.
Objective: To study the impact of oral health on quality of life of patients older than 50 years, verifying, preliminarily, the reliability of the OHIP-14 index.
Methods: We studied the internal consistency of the index by applying the alpha-Cronbach coefficient. The OHIP-14 index was obtained by the additive method, and the patients were divided according to gender, age and education level.
Results: Considering all the issues that make up the OHIP-14 index, good internal consistency was obtained. The homogeneity of the questions in the index, it was confirmed that condition, since the difference between the value of the total Cronbach’s alpha-factor and issues was less than 0.03. The values of the intraclass correlation show the stability of their items.
Conclusion: The OHIP-14 index was consistent and proved to be there relatively high impact of oral health on QoL of patients, with a predominance of physical pain in its components “feel bothered to feed” and “feel pain in the mouth” as well as the components of the psychological impairment.
Aim: Pesticide residue dissipation in chickpea legume under simulated storage conditions as well as effect of processing techniques was investigated. Further, the impact of pesticide residues was studied on micronutrient bioavailability.
Background: Food quality and safety have assumed an important dimension in current scenario. It is important to investigate the pesticide residues present in the grains from storage in warehouses and their dissipation through processing.
Methods: Pesticide residues in chickpea grains were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC) while simulated gastric digestion was undertaken for bioavailability.
Results: The dissipation pattern of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites under grain storage conditions for 5 months revealed that the residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) values right from the beginning of the storage. The effect of processing techniques showed that soaking and germination eliminated almost all the pesticide residues. However, the build-up of toxic metabolite oxon during pressure cooking and microwave (MW) cooking is a matter of great concern because of its greater toxicity than parent pesticide molecule. The impact of pesticide residues on the bioavailability of micronutrients showed that chlorpyrifos did not impact the bioavailability of Fe and Zn but significantly reduced the bioavailability of Cu and Mn at the highest spiking level (25 ppm) of chlorpyrifos.
Conclusion: Storage of grains leads to accumulation of residues which are eliminated by household processing techniques. Pesticide residues impact micronutrient bioavailability in grains.
In many countries, rice contributes to health by supplying dietary energy, proteins and fat. Many different species of rice have been developed in Japan and other rice producing countries. Some varieties are expected to prevent various diseases, or to be used for dietary therapy. The health effects of brown rice are empirically well known, and accumulating evidence about the physiological and pharmacological activity of rice bran strongly supports the use of brown rice in the dietary therapy. These could be categorized in the new concept, “medical rice”. For example: medical rice for diabetes (glycemic index<55), medical rice for chronic kidney disease (CKD) (protein<1/20), medical rice for mental health (high gamma-aminobutylic acid or γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA), gamma oryzanol (γ-oryzanol) and/or ferulic acid), and medical rice for cancer prevention (high antioxidant capacity). Organic cultivation is necessary to avoid toxic substances from fertilizers and insecticides. In response to the enormous increase of medical costs in many countries, encouragement of healthy longevity by changes of dietary habits is mandatory. Functional food labeling has started in 2015 in Japan, so the proper food labeling of medical rice could help people who want to control and/or improve their health status.
Congenitally missing teeth are a common developmental abnormality. It is defined as the developmental absence of teeth excluding the third molars. It is more commonly seen in permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Second premolars are the most commonly missing teeth after the third molars. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilaterally congenitally missing second premolars in the mandibular region and its management.