Ulf-Göran Gerdtham, PhD

Department of Economics
Health Economics Unit
Lund University
School of Economics and Management
Lund, Sweden



• (1987) BA in Public Administration (Advanced Economics and Statistics), Högskolan i Örebro
• (1991) PhD, Department of Health and Society, Linköping University (Subject: Health Economics)



• (1991-1994) Assistant Professor (Doktorstjänst i Nationalekonomi, särskilt hälsoekonomi), Stockholm School of Economics
• (1994-2001) Associate Professor (Docent i hälsoekonomi), Stockholm School of Economics
• (2001-2007) Professor (Health Economics), Lund University
• (2007-2008) Professor (Economics), Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE), Department of Economics, Business School, University of Aberdeen


• (2009-Present) Professor (Tenured), Department of Economics and (2001-Present) Department of Clinical Sciences Research, Lunds University, SUS Malmö Lund University, Sweden
• (2009-Present) Director of Research, Health Economics & Management HEM, Institute of Economic Research, Lund University School of Economics and Management
• Chief, Research group, Health Economics Unit and Health Economics Program HEP (2009-Present), Lund University and Centrum för primärvårds for skning (2009-Present), Region Skåne

Research Interest

His research interests include: Health economics issues in general, Distribution in health and health care, Dual relationship between socioeconomic factors and health, Health-related behaviors and Pharmaceutical economics.

Scientific Activities


• (2011-Present) Member of the Institute of Health Economics (IHE) Scientific Advisory Board
• (2016-Present) Member of the Expert Group on nutrition and public health during the period, National Food Agency, Sweden
• (2003-2004) Member of the OECD Health Equity Group
• (2003-2004) Member of the OECD expert group on Measuring Equity of Access to Health Care



1. Liedberg, F, Gerdtham, U-G, Gralén, K, et al. Fast-track access to urologic care for patients with macroscopic haematuria is efficient and cost-effective: Results from a prospective intervention study. British Journal of Cancer. 2016; 115(7): 770-775. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2016.265
2. Ásgeirsdóttir TL, Gerdtham U-G. Health behavior in the Nordic countries. Nordic Journal of Health Economics. 2016; 4(1): 28-40. doi: 10.5617/njhe.2717
3. Kjellsson G, Gerdtham U-G, Petrie D. Re: Popham F, Re: Lies, Damned Lies, and Health Inequality Measurements: Understanding the Value Judgments. Epidemiology. 2016. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000440
4. Gerdtham U-G, Lundborg P, Lyttkens CH, Nystedt P. Do Education and Income Really Explain Inequalities in Health? Applying a Twin Design. Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 2016; 118(1): 25-48. doi: 10.1111/sjoe.12130
5. Ljungvall Å, Gerdtham U-G, Lindblad U. Misreporting and misclassification: implications for socioeconomic disparities in body-mass index and obesity. The European Journal of Health Economics. 2015; 16(1): 5-20. doi: 10.1007/s10198-013-0545-5
6. Kjellsson G, Gerdtham U-G, Petrie, D. Lies, damned lies, and health inequality measurements: Understanding the value judgments. Epidemiology. 2015; 26(5): 673-680. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000319
7. Hansen F, Anell A, Gerdtham U-G, Lyttkens CH. The future of health economics: the potential of behavioral and experimental economics. Nordic Journal of Health Economics. 2015; 3(1): 68-86. doi: 10.5617/njhe.660
8. Kiadaliri AA, Eliasson B, Gerdtham U-G. Does the choice of EQ-5D tariff matter? A comparison of the Swedish EQ-5D-3L index score with UK, US, Germany and Denmark among type 2 diabetes patients. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2015; 13(1): 1.
9. Dackehag M, Gerdtham U-G, Nordin M. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market. The European Journal of Health Economics. 2015; 16(6): 589-601.
10. Borg S, Palaszewski B, Gerdtham U-G, Fredrik Ö, Roos P, Gudbjörnsdottir S. Patient-reported outcome measures and risk factors in a quality registry: A basis for more patient-centered diabetes care in Sweden. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2014; 11(12): 12223-12246.
11. Kiadaliri AA, Gerdtham U-G, Eliasson B, Carlsson KS. Cost-Utility Analysis of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Agonists Compared with Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors or Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Basal Insulin as Add-On to Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes in Sweden. Diabetes Therapy. 2014; 5(2): 591-607. doi: 10.1007/s13300-014-0080-0.
12. Kiadaliri AA, Gerdtham U-G, Eliasson B, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Svensson A-M, Carlsson KS. Health utilities of type 2 diabetes-related complications: A cross-sectional study in Sweden. International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health. 2014; 11(5): 4939-4952. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110504939
13. Kelly PJ, Clarke PM, Hayes AJ, et al. Risk equations to predict the mortality of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus following major complications: A study using Swedish Diabetes National Register data. Diabetic Medicine. 2014; 28(4): 428-435.
14. Kjellsson G, Clarke P, Gerdtham U-G. Forgetting to remember or remembering to forget: a study of the recall period length in health care survey questions. Journal of health economics. 2014; 35: 34-46.
15. Burström K, Sun S, Gerdtham U-G, et al. Swedish experience-based value sets for EQ-5D health states. Quality of Life Research. 2014; 23(2): 431-442.
16. Nordin M, Gerdtham U-G. Why a positive link between increasing age and income-related health inequality? Nordic Journal of Health Economics. 2013; 2(1). doi: 10.5617/njhe.651
17. Saha S, Gerdtham U-G. Cost-of-Illness of Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health: A Systematic Literature Review. Health Econ Rev. 2013; 3: 24.
18. Saha S, Carlsson KS, Gerdtham U-G, et al. Are lifestyle interventions in primary care cost-effective?–An analysis based on a Markov model, differences-in-differences approach and the Swedish Björknäs study. PloS one. 2013; 8(11): e80672. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080672
19. Kiadaliri AA, Jafari M, Gerdtham U-G. Frontier-based techniques in measuring hospital efficiency in Iran: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. BMC health services research. 2013; 13(1): 1.
20. Palmer AJ, Mount Hood 5 Modeling Group, Clarke P, et al. Computer modeling of diabetes and its complications: A report on the Fifth Mount Hood challenge meeting. 2013; 16(4): 670-685. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2013.01.002
21. Jarl J, Heckley G, Brummer J, Gerdtham U-G. Time characteristics of the effect of alcohol cessation on the risk of stomach cancer–a meta-analysis. BMC public health. 2013; 13(1): 1.
22. Saha S, Leijon M, Gerdtham U-G, et al. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention addressing a Middle Eastern immigrant population at risk of diabetes, the MEDIM (impact of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes In Malmö): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2013; 14(1): 1.
23. Kiadaliri AA, Hosseinpour R, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Gerdtham U-G. Pure and social disparities in distribution of dentists: a cross-sectional province-based study in Iran. International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health. 2013; 10(5): 1882-1894.
24. Kiadaliri AA, Gerdtham U-G, Nilsson P, Eliasson B, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Carlsson KS. Towards renewed health economic simulation of type 2 diabetes: Risk equations for first and second cardiovascular events from Swedish register data. PloS one. 2013; 8(5): e62650. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062650
25. Persson S, Dahlquist G, Gerdtham U-G, Steen Carlsson K. The Impact of Childhood Onset Type 1 Diabetes on Schooling-a Population-Based Register Study. Diabetologia. 2013; 56(6): 1254-1262. doi: 10.1007/s00125-013-2870-8
26. Kiadaliri A, Clarke PM, Gerdtham U-G, et al. Predicting changes in cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes in the post-UKPDS era: Longitudinal analysis of the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2013; 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/241347
27. Kjellsson G, Gerdtham U-G. On correcting the concentration index for binary variables. Journal of Health Economics. 2013; 32(3): 659-670.
28. Kiadaliri AA, Jarl J, Gavriilidis G, Gerdtham U-G. Alcohol drinking cessation and the risk of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2013; 8(3): e58158. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058158.
29. Kjellsson G, Gerdtham U-G. Lost in translation: Rethinking the inequality equivalence criteria for bounded health variables. Research on Economic Inequality. 2013; 21: 3-32.
30. Nordin M, Dackehag M, Gerdtham U-G. Socioeconomic inequalities in drug utilization for Sweden: Evidence from linked survey and register data. Social Science & Medicine. 2013; 77: 106-117. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.013.
31. Gerdtham U-G. Can health economics help us understand our strange public health care system? Nordic Journal of Health Economics. 2013; 1(1). doi: 10.5617/njhe.611
32. Mazumdar S, Gerdtham U-G. Heterogeneity in self-assessed health status among the elderly in India. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2013; 25(3): 271-283. doi: 10.1177/1010539511416109.
33. Axelson H, Gerdtham U-G, Ekman B, Hoa DTP, Alfvén T. Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: A retrospective study of survey data for 1997–2006. BMC health services research. 2012; 12(1): 1.
34. Stenman E, Leijon ME, Sundquist K, et al. A multi-professional team intervention on physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors-the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO) study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012; 12: 173. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-173
35. Hjalte F, Brännström J, Gerdtham U-G. Societal costs of hearing disorders: a systematic and critical review of literature. International Journal of Audiology. 2012; 51(9): 655-662. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2012.690077
36. Amiri A, Gerdtham U-G, Ventelou B. HIV/AIDS-GDP Nexus? Evidence from panel-data for African countries. Economics Bulletin. 2012; 32(1): 1060-1067.
37. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G. Time pattern of reduction in risk of oesophageal cancer following alcohol cessation-a meta‐analysis. Addiction. 2012; 107(7): 1234-1243.
38. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G. Does drinking affect long-term sickness absence? A sample selection approach correcting for employment and accounting for drinking history. Applied Economics. 2012; 44: 2811-2825.
39. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G. Economic evaluations of organ transplantations-a systematic literature review. Nordic Journal of Health Economics. 2011; 1(1).
40. Heckley G, Jarl J, Asamoah B, Gerdtham U-G. How the risk of liver cancer changes after alcohol cessation: A review and meta-analysis of the current literature. BMC Cancer. 2011; 11: 446.
41. Petrie D, Allanson P, Gerdtham U-G. Accounting for the dead in the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities. Journal of Health Economics. 2011; 30(5): 1113-1123. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.07.004
42. Combes J-B, Gerdtham U-G, Jarl J. Equalisation of alcohol participation among socioeconomic groups over time: An analysis based on the total differential approach and longitudinal data from Sweden. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2011; 10(1): 10. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-10-10
43. Kjellsson G, Gerdtham U-G, Lyttkens CH. Breaking bad habits by education-smoking dynamics among Swedish women. Health economics. 2011; 20(7): 876-881. doi: 10.1002/hec.1669
44. Saha S, Gerdtham U-G, Johansson P. Economic evaluation of lifestyle interventions for preventing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(8): 3150-3195. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7083150
45. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G, Ludbrook A, Petrie D. On measurement of avoidable and unavoidable cost of alcohol: An application of method for estimating costs due to prior consumption. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(7): 2881-95.
46. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G. Wage penalty of abstinence and wage premium of drinking–A misclassification bias due to pooling of drinking groups? Addiction Research & Theory. 2010; 18(3): 284-297.
47. Islam MK, Gerdtham U-G, Clarke P, Burström K. Does income‐related health inequality change as the population ages? Evidence from Swedish panel data. Health Economics. 2010; 19(3): 334-349.
48. Allanson P, Gerdtham U-G, Petrie D. Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequality. Journal of Health Economics. 2010; 29(1): 78-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.10.005
49. Ljungvall Å, Gerdtham U-G. More equal but heavier: A longitudinal analysis of income-related obesity inequalities in an adult Swedish cohort. Social Science & Medicine. 2010; 70(2): 221-231.
50. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G, Selin KH. Medical net cost of low alcohol consumption-a cause to reconsider improved health as the link between alcohol and wage? Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2009; 7(1): 17. doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-7-17
51. Axelson H, Bales S, Minh PD, Ekman B, Gerdtham U-G. Health financing for the poor produces promising short-term effects on utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure: evidence from Vietnam. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2009; 8(1): 1. doi: 10.1155/2009/106389
52. Eek F, Merlo J, Gerdtham U-G, Lithman, T. Health care utilisation and attitudes towards health care in subjects reporting environmental annoyance from electricity and chemicals. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2009; 10: 1-8.
53. Gerdtham U-G, Andersson LF, Ericsson Å, et al. Factors affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related costs: A multivariate analysis of a Swedish COPD cohort. The European Journal of Health Economics. 2009; 10(2): 217-226. doi: 10.1007/s10198-008-0121-6.
54. Gerdtham U-G, Clarke P, Hayes A, Gudbjornsdottir S. Estimating the cost of diabetes mellitus-related events from inpatient admissions in Sweden using administrative hospitalization data. Pharmacoeconomics. 2009; 27(1): 81-90. doi: 10.2165/00019053-200927010-00008
55. Clarke PM, Fiebig DG, Gerdtham U-G. Optimal recall length in survey design. Journal of Health Economics. 2008; 27(5): 1275-1284. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2008.05.012
56. Pervin T, Gerdtham U-G, Lyttkens CH. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2008; 6(1): 19. doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-6-19
57. Islam MK, Gerdtham U-G, Gullberg B, Lindström M, Merlo J. Social capital externalities and mortality in Sweden. Economics & Human Biology. 2008; 6(1): 19-42.
58. Jarl J, Johansson P, Eriksson A, Eriksson M, et al. The societal cost of alcohol consumption: an estimation of the economic and human cost including health effects in Sweden, 2002. The European Journal of Health Economics. 2008; 9(4): 351-360.
59. Jarl J, Eriksson M, Gerdtham U-G, Hemström Ö, Room R. More detailed data does not always raise the costs. Experience from a Swedish cost of alcohol study. Contemporary Drug Problems. 2007; 34: 11-23.
60. Gerdtham U-G, Ruhm CJ. Deaths rise in good economic times: Evidence from the OECD. Economics & Human Biology. 2006; 4(3): 298-316. doi: 10.3386/w9357
61. Islam MK, Merlo J, Kawachi I, Lindström M, Burström K, Gerdtham U-G. Does it really matter where you live? A panel data multilevel analysis of Swedish municipality-level social capital on individual health-related quality of life. Health Economics, Policy and Law. 2006; 1(03): 209-235.
62. Islam MK, Merlo J, Kawachi I, Lindström M, Gerdtham U-G. Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2006; 5(1): 1.
63. van Doorslaer E, Masseria C, Koolman X, et al. Unequal Access to Medical Care in the OECD Countries. Canadian Medical Association. 2006; 17: 177-183.
64. Jarl J, Gerdtham U-G, Lyttkens CH, Lithman T, Merlo J. The Danish effect on Swedish alcohol costs. The European Journal of Health Economics. 2006; 7(1): 46-54.
65. Ohlsson H, Lindblad U, Lithman T, et al. Understanding adherence to official guidelines on statin prescribing in primary health care-a multi-level methodological approach. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2005; 61(9): 657-665.
66. Gerdtham U-G, Lundin D, Sáez-Martí M. The ageing of society, health services provision and taxes. Journal of Population Economics. 2005; 18(3): 519-537. doi: 10.1007/s00148-005-0223-8
67. Merlo J, Gerdtham U-G, Eckerlund I, et al. Hospital level of care and neonatal mortality in low-and high-risk deliveries: Reassessing the question in Sweden by multilevel analysis. Medical Care. 2005; 43(11): 1092-1100.
68. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. Business cycles and mortality: Results from Swedish microdata. Social Science & Medicine. 2005; 60(1): 205-218.
69. Khan J, Gerdtham U-G, Jansson B. Effects of macroeconomic trends on social security spending due to sickness and disability. American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 94(11): 2004-2049.
70. Gerdtham U-G, Lundin D. Changes in drug spending for different age groups during the 1990s? Evidence from Sweden. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research. 2004; 4(3): 343-351. doi: 10.1586/14737167.4.3.343
71. Beckman A, Merlo J, Lynch JW, Gerdtham U-G, Lindström M, Lithman T. Country of birth, socioeconomic position, and health care expenditure-a multilevel analysis of the city of Malmö, Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community health. 2004; 58: 145-149. doi: 10.1136/jech.58.2.145
72. Gerdtham U-G, Lundin D. Why did drug spending increase during the 1990s? Pharmacoeconomics. 2004; 22(1): 29-42.
73. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. Absolute income, relative income, income inequality, and mortality. Journal of Human Resources. 2004; 39(1): 228-247.
74. Van Doorslaer E, Gerdtham U-G. Does inequality in self-assessed health predict inequality in survival by income? Evidence from Swedish data. Social Science & Medicine. 2003; 57(9): 1621-1629.
75. Merlo J, Gerdtham U-G, Lynch J, Beckman A, Norlund A, Lithman T. Social inequalities in health-do they diminish with age? Revisiting the question in Sweden 1999. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2003; 2(1): 2. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-2-2
76. Clarke P, Gerdtham U-G, Connelly L. A note on the decomposition of the health concentration index. Health Economics. 2003; 12: 511-516. doi: 10.1002/hec.767
77. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. A note on the effect of unemployment on mortality. Journal of health economics.
2003; 22(3): 505-518.
78. Gerdtham U-G, Zethraeus N. Predicting survival in cost-effectiveness analyses based on clinical trials. International Journal of Technology Assessment In Health Care. 2003; 19(3): 507-512.
79. Khan J, Gerdtham U-G, Jansson B. Redistributive effects of the Swedish social insurance system. The European Journal of Public Health. 2002; 12(4): 273-278.
80. Clarke PM, Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M, Bingefors K, Smith L. On the measurement of relative and absolute income-related health inequality. Social Science & Medicine. 2002; 55(11): 1923-1928.
81. Gerdtham U-G, Löthgren M. New Panel Results on Cointegration of International Health Expenditure. Applied Economics. 2002; 34: 1679-1686. doi: 10.1080/00036840110116397
82. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. Do life-saving regulations save lives? Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. 2002; 24(3): 231-249.
83. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. The relationship between happiness, health, and socio-economic factors: Results based on Swedish microdata. The Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001; 30(6): 553-557.
84. Gerdtham U-G, Trivedi PK. Equity in Swedish health care reconsidered: New results based on the finite mixture model. Health Economics. 2001; 10(6): 565-572.
85. Gerdtham U-G, Löthgren M. Health system effects on cost efficiency in the OECD countries. Applied Economics. 2001; 33(5): 643-647.
86. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. Income-related inequality in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years. Journal of Health Economics. 2000; 19(6): 1007-1026.
87. Van Doorslaer E, Wagstaff A, Van der Burg H, et al. Equity in the delivery of health care in Europe and the US. Journal of health economics. 2000; 19(5): 553-583.
88. Gerdtham U-G, Löthgren M. On stationarity and cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP. Journal of Health Economics. 2000; 19(4): 461-475.
89. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. New estimates of the demand for health: results based on a categorical health measure and Swedish micro data. Social Science & Medicine. 1999; 49(10): 1325-1332.
90. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M, Lundberg L, Isacsson D. The Demand for Health: Results from New Measures of Health Capital. European Journal of Political Economy. 1999; 15: 501-521.
91. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M, Lundberg L, Isacsson D. A Note on Validating Wagstaff and Van Doorslaers Health Measure in the Analysis of Inequalities in Health. Journal of Health Economics. 1999; 18: 117-124.
92. Gerdtham U-G, Löthgren M, Tambour M, Rehnberg C. Internal Markets and Health Care Efficiency: A Multiple-Output Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Health Economics. 1999; 8: 151-164.
93. Van Doorslaer E, Wagstaff A, Van der Burg H, et al. The redistributive effect of health care finance in twelve OECD countries. Journal of Health Economics. 1999; 18(3): 291-313.
94. Wagstaff A, Van Doorslaer E, Van der Burg H, et al. Equity in the finance of health care: Some further international comparisons. Journal of health economics. 1999; 18(3): 263-290.
95. Wagstaff A, Van Doorslaer E, van der Burg H, et al. Redistributive effect, progressivity and differential tax treatment: Personal income taxes in twelve OECD countries. Journal of Public Economics. 1999; 72(1): 73-98.
96. Eckerlund I, Gerdtham U-G. Estimating the effect of cesarean section rate on health outcome. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 1999; 15(01): 123-135.
97. Gerdtham U-G, Rehnberg C, Tambour M. The Impact of Internal Markets on Health Care Efficiency: Evidence from Health Care Reforms in Sweden. Applied Economics. 1999; 31: 935-945. doi: 10.1080/000368499323652
98. Kobelt G, Jönsson L, Gerdtham U-G, Krieglstein G. Direct Costs of Glaucoma Management Following Initiation of Medical Therapy: A Simulation Model Based on an Observational Study of Glaucoma Treatment in Germany. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 1998; 236: 811-821.
99. Gerdtham U-G, Sundberg G. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance. The International Journal of Health Planning And Management. 1998; 13(4): 289-306.
100. Gerdtham U-G, Sundberg G. Equity in the Delivery of Health Care in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine. 1998; 26: 259-264.
101. Eckerlund I, Gerdtham U-G. Econometric analysis of variation in cesarean section rates: A cross-sectional study of 59 obstetrical departments in Sweden. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 1998; 14(04): 774-787.
102. Kobelt-Nguyen G, Gerdtham U-G, Alm A. Costs of treating primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: A retrospective, observational two-year chart review of newly diagnosed patients in Sweden and the United States. Journal of glaucoma. 1998; 7(2): 95-104.
103. Zethraeus N, Gerdtham U-G. Estimating the costs of hip fracture and potential savings. International Journal of Technology Assessment In Health Care. 1998; 14(02): 255-267.
104. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M, Gunnarsson B, Marcusson M, Henriksson F. The effect of changes in treatment patterns on drug expenditure. Pharmacoeconomics. 1998; 13(1): 127-134.
105. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M, Gunnarsson B, Marcusson M, Henriksson F. Price indices of drugs and the switching to new drugs. Pharmacoeconomics. 1998; 13(1): 71-80.
106. Van Doorslaer E, Wagstaff A, Bleichrodt H, et al. Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons. Journal of Health Economics. 1997; 16(1): 93-112.
107. Gerdtham U-G. Equity in health care utilization: Further tests based on hurdle models and Swedish micro data. Health Economics. 1997; 6(3): 303-319.
108. Gerdtham U-G, Hertzman P, Jönsson B, Boman G. Impact of inhaled corticosteroids on acute asthma hospitalization in Sweden: 1978 to 1991. Medical Care. 1996; 34(12): 1188-1198.
109. Gerdtham U-G, Hertzman P, Boman G, Finsson BJ. Impact of inhaled corticosteroids on asthma hospitalization in Sweden. Applied Economics. 1996; 28(12): 1591-1599.
110. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M. The impact of user charges on the consumption of drugs. Pharmacoeconomics. 1996; 9(6): 478-483.
111. Johannesson M, Gerdtham U-G. A note on the estimation of the equity-efficiency trade-off for QALYs. Journal of Health Economics. 1996; 15(3): 359-368.
112. Johannesson M, Gerdtham U-G. A pilot test of using the veil of ignorance approach to estimate a social welfare function for income. Applied Economics Letters. 1995; 2(10): 400-402.
113. Gerdtham U-G, Jönsson B. Health care expenditure in the Nordic countries. Health Policy. 1994; 26(3): 207-220.
114. Johannesson M, Johansson P-O, Kriström B, Gerdtham U-G. Willingness to pay for antihypertensive therapy-further results. Journal of Health Economics. 1993; 12(1): 95-108.
115. Gerdtham U-G, Johannesson M, Jönsson B. Drug expenditure and new drug introductions. Pharmacoeconomics. 1993; 4(3): 215-225.
116. Gerdtham U-G. The impact of aging on health care expenditure in Sweden. Health Policy. 1993; 24(1): 1-8.
117. Gerdtham U-G, Søgaard J, Andersson F, Jönsson B. An econometric analysis of health care expenditure: a cross-section study of the OECD countries. Journal of Health Economics. 1992; 11(1): 63-84.
118. Gerdtham U-G, Jönsson B. International comparisons of health care expenditure-conversion factor instability, heteroscedasticity, outliers and robust estimators. Journal of Health Economics. 1992; 11(2): 189-197. doi: 10.1016/0167-6296(92)90035-Y
119. Gerdtham U-G. Pooling international health care expenditure data. Health Economics. 1992; 1(4): 217-231. doi: 10.1002/hec.4730010404
120. Gbesemete KP, Gerdtham U-G. Determinants of health care expenditure in Africa: a cross-sectional study. World Development. 1992; 20(2): 303-308.
121. Gerdtham U-G, Jönsson B. Health care expenditure in Sweden-an international comparison. Health Policy. 1991; 19(2): 211-228.
122. Gerdtham U-G, Jönsson B. Price and quantity in international comparisons of health care expenditure. Applied Economics. 1991; 23(9): 1519-1528. doi: 10.1080/00036849100000204
123. Gerdtham U-G, Jönsson B. Conversion factor instability in international comparisons of health care expenditure. Journal of Health Economics. 1991; 10(2): 227-234.