Sophia K. Apple, MS, MD

Professor and Chief of Breast Pathology
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
University of California at Los Angeles
David Geffen School of Medicine
10833 Le Conte Avenue CHS 1P-244
Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA



• (1984) BA, Biochemistry Major Comparative Religion Minor, New York University, New York, New York
• (1987) MS, New York Biochemistry Teaching Assistant, New York University, New York,
• (1992) MD, Wright State University School of Medicine Dayton, Ohio
• (1996) Anatomical and Clinical Pathology Residency Program, Department of Pathology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
• (1997) Chief Resident and Fellowship in Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angels, CA
• (1998) Cytopathology Fellowship, Department of Pathology, University of California at Los Angeles, CA

Research Interest

Her research interest includes: Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.

Scientific Activities


• (1988-1989) Leonardo da Vinci Award, Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology;
• (1989-1990) Deans Scholarship at Wright State University;
• (1988-1990) Psi Sigma Alpha Honorary Scholastic Achievement for Top 10 of Class Rank;
• (1989-1990) Academic Discipline Award in Pharmacology;
• (1990-1991) Honors in Psychiatry, Family Practice and Diagnostic Radiology;
• (1990-1991) Wright State University School of Medicine Scholarship Recipient, Top 10 of Class Rank;
• (1995) American Society of Clinical Pathologists/College of American American Pathologists Resident Competition Award: Best Paper and Presentation; Sensitive and Specific Diagnosis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based K-ras Mutation Detection in Routine Cytology Smears;
• (1995) Los Angeles Pathology Society Resident Award: Honorary Recipient Award;
• (1996 The best presentation Resident award in March 1997 Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma TumorigenesisAbstract International Canadian and United States Pathology Association Resident competition Poster presentation;
• (1996) Presentation at Los Angeles Pathology Society May 1997 Honorary Mention AwardEvidence of Multi-Step Carcinogesis by Immunohistochemical Evaluation of K-ras, p53 and HER-2/neu Expression in Preinvasive Pancreatic Lesions and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma;
• (2000) 5th International Symposium on Predictive Oncology and Therapy Poster and Presentation Oct 2000, Geneva, Switzerland Evidence of Multi-Step Carcinogesis by Immunohistochemical Evaluation of K-ras, p53 and HER2/neu Expression in Preinvasive Pancreatic Lesions and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma;
• (2001) Outstanding Physician of the Year Award for Southern Kaiser Permanente at Woodland Hills Medical Center;
• (2005) The first prize for the May 10, 2005 32nd Annual Resident/Fellow Symposium Presentations for Los Angeles Society of Pathologists by Dr Chandra Burge (resident) Winner of 33rd Annual Resident/Fellow Symposium at Los Angeles Society of Pathology 2006;
• (2005) Presentation at ASCP National meeting Resident competition with Soung P and Apple S AJCP Resident Research Symposium held at Pathology Today: the ASCP Annual Meeting, October 8-11, 2005 in Seattle Histologic Changes in Breast Carcinoma After Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy Correlate with Pathologic Response;
• (2008) American Society of Breast Disease 32nd Annual Symposium – April 10- 12, 2008The Breast Journal 2008 Awards 3rd recipients Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration in Breast Lesions and Implications for Future Use;
• (2010) Awarded the Certificate of Merit Educational exhibit presentation, RSNA 2010 Chheang S, Kilian C, Nguyen F, Apple S, Bassett L More than Microcalcifications: The Wide Spectrum of Mammographic, Sonographic, and Magnetic Imaging Features of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ ;
• (2013-2014) Roberta K Nieberg Award by Residents and Fellows of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Outstanding teaching by a faculty member in Anatomic Pathology;
• (2015) Wanwisa Himakhum MD from Thailand who has been chosen as the recipient of the Foundation Travel Scholarship from the American Society of Cytopathology Visiting Scholar under S Apple in Cytology.


1. Apple S, Alzona MC, Jahromi SA, Grody W. Can different Thyroid Tumor Types Be Distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based K-ras Mutation Detection?. Molecular Diagnostic. 1995; 3(3): 143-148.
2. Apple S, Hecht JR, Novak J, Nieberg R, Rosenthal D, Grody W. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based K-ras MutationDetection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Routine Cytology Smears. Am J. Clin. Pathol. 1996; (105) :321-326.
3. Apple S. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Check Sample I. American Society of Clinical Pathology. 1997; SP 97-93: 35-46.
4. Apple S, Nieberg R, Hirschowitz S. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura and Pitfalls. Acta Cytologica. 1997;42: 1528-1533.
5. Apple S, Nieberg R, Hirschowitz S. Infantile fibromatosis Colli, Fine Needle Aspiration. Acta Cytologica. 1997; 41: 1373-1376.
6. Barquist ES, Apple S, Jensen DM, Ashley SW. Jejunal lymphangioma. An unusual cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. Dig Dis Sci. 1997;42(6):1179-1183.
7. Rao JY, Apple S, Hemstreet GP, Jin Y, Nieberg R. Single cellmutation biomarker analysis in archival breast fine-needle aspiration specimens: quantitative fluorescence image analysis of DNA content, p53, and G-actin as breast cancer biomarkers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7(11): 1027-1033.
8. Salami N, Hirschowitz S, Nieberg R, Apple S. Evaluation of the Triple Test-Approach in Cases with Inadequate Breast Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies of Palpable Breast Lesions. Acta Cytologica 1999; 43: 339-343.
9. Apple S, Lewin D, Hecht JR, Jahomi S, Grody W, Nieberg R. Evidence of Multi-Steps Carcinogesis by Immunohistochemical Evaluation of K-ras, p53 and HER2/neu Expression in Preinvasive Pancreatic Lesions and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. Human Pathol. 1999; 30: 123-129.
10. Rao JY, Apple S, Jin Y, Lin S, Nieberg R, Hirschowitz S. Comparative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of c-myc amplication on Archival Breast Fine-Needle Aspiration Materials. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2000; 9: 175-179.
11. Singer A, Apple S. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder. Infec Urol 2001; 14 (3): 68-74.
12. Sartippour MR, Rao JY, Apple S, et al. A pilot clinical study of short-term Isofalvone supplements in breast cancer patients. Nutrition and Cancer 2004; 49(1): 59-65.
13. Zhang L, Maul RS, Rao JY, et al. Expression pattern of the novel gene EG-1 in cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 2004; 10(10): 3504-3508.
14. Apple S. Invasive ductal carcinoma with tissue neutrophila: a distinct entity?. The Breast 2004; 13: 519-521.
15. Burge C, Chang H, Apple S. Do the results of breast cancer biomarker studies differ between core biopsy and surgical excision specimens?. The Breast Journal 2005; 11(6): 433-439. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2005.06.004
16. Apple S. Variability in gross and microscopic pathology reporting in excisional biopsies of breast cancer tissue. Breast J 2006; 12(2): 145-149. doi: 10.1111/j.1075-122X.2006.00222.x
17. Prati R, Apple S, He J, Gornbein J and Chang H. Histopathologic characteristics predicting HER-2/neu amplification in breast cancer. Breast J 2005;11(6):433-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1075-122X.2005.00125.x
18. Apple S, Suthar F. How do we measure a residual breast cancer tumor size in Histopathology (gold standard) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy? The Breast 2006; 15(3): 370-376. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2005.08.002
19. Moatamed N, Apple S. Extensive Sampling of the Surgical Specimens is Essential for Accurate T-Staging in Patients with Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma of Breast: A Comparative Study of Gross versus Microscopic Tumor Sizes. The Breast Journal 2006; 12 (6): 511-517. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2006.00338.x
20. Ra S, Fishbein M, Oren TB, et al. Mucinous adenocarcinomas of the thymus: Report of 2 cases and review of literature. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2007; 31(9): 1330-1336.
21. Bassett L, Mahoney M, Apple S. Interventional breast imaging: current procedures and assessing for concordance with pathology. Radiol Clin North Am. 2007; 45(5): 881-894 . doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2007.06.010
22. Haines III G, Wiley E, Susnik B, et al. HER2 in Well Differentiated Breast Cancer: Is Testing Necessary?. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008; 112(3): 551-556.doi: 10.1007/s10549-008-9893-8
23. Eradat J, Mehta NH, Lee SP, Apple S, Bassett L. Is a short-interval post-radiation mammogram necessary after conservative surgery and radiation in breast cancer? Int I Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2008; 72(4): 1041-1047. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.02.017
24. Day C, Fimbres A, Salami N, Moatamed N, Apple S. A retrospective study of the diagnostic accuracy of FNA in breast lesions and implications for future use. Diagnostic Cytology 2008;36:855-860. doi: 10.1002/dc.20933
25. Apple S, Moatamed N, Lai C, Bhuta S. Sebaceous Adenoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report with Fine Needle Aspiration Findings and Histologic Correlation. Acta Cytologica 2009; 53: 419-422.
26. Naini B, Apple S, Presley M, Moatamed N. A correlation study on Diagnostic Ultrasound-guided Fine needle aspiration of Lymph nodes with histological and clinical diagnoses, the UCLA Medical Center Experience. Diagnostic Cytopathology 2009; 36(7): 460-466. doi: 10.1002/dc.20825
27. Sullivan P, Apple S. Should Histologic Type be taken into account when considering Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast carcinoma? The Breast Journals 2009; (15): 146-154. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00689.x
28. Apple S, Lowe AC, Nagesh R, Peter SI, Moatamed N. Comparison of Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization HER-2/neu Results on Core Needle Biopsy and Excisional biopsy in Primary Breast Cancer. Mod Pathol 2009;22, 1151-1159. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2009.82
29. Moatamed N, Naini B, Fathizadeh P, Estrella J, Apple S. A correlation study of diagnostic fine-needle aspiration with histologic diagnosis in cystic neck lesions. Diagnostic Cytopathology 2009;37: 720-726. doi: 10.1002/dc.21088
30. Oshie S, Moatamed N, Chang H, Apple S. Heterotopic Breast Tissue versus Occult Metastatic Carcinoma in Lymph Node, a Diagnostic Dilemma: A Case Report. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 2009; 14(4): 260-263. doi: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2009.06.010
31. Lu D, Zhang LP, Apple S, Dry S, Moatamed N. Fine Needle Aspiration of Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Temporomandibular Joint. Diagnostic Cytopathology 2010; (39): 45-48. doi: 10.1002/dc.21362
32. Behjatnia B, Sim J, Bassett L, Moatamed N, Apple S. Does Size matter? Comparison study between MRI, gross, and microscopic tumor sizes in breast cancer in lumpectomy specimens. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2010; 3(3): 303-309. 33. Konecny G, Pauletti G, Untch M, et al. Association between HER2, TOP2A, and response to anthracycline-based preoperative chemotherapy in high-risk primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010;120(2):481-489. doi: 10.1007/s10549-010-0744-z
34. Apple S, Moatamed N, Sullivan P. Accurate classification of sentinel lymph node metastases in patients with lobular breast carcinoma. The Breast 2010;(19):360-364. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2010.02.010
35. Apple S, Matin M, Olsen E, Moatamed N. Significance of lobular intraepithelial neoplasia at margins of breast conservative specimens: a report of 38 cases and literature review. Diagnostic Pathol 2010; 5: 54.
36. Yoon N, Erin ML, Shen D, et al. Higher Levels of GATA3 Predict Better Survival in Women with Breast Cancer. Human Pathol, 2010;41(12):1794-1801. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.06.010
37. Apple S, Pucci R, Lowe AC, et al. The effect of delay in fixation, different fixatives, and duration of fixation in Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor results in breast carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011; 135(4): 592-598. doi: 10.1309/AJCPB1RIT5YXMRIS
38. Galliano G, Moatamed N, Lee S, Salami N, Apple S. Reflex High Risk HPV Testing in Atypical Squamous Cells, Cannot Exclude High Grade Intraepithelial Lesion: A large institution’s experience with the significance of this often ordered test. Acta Cytologica 2011;55:167-172. doi: 10.1159/000323319
39. Moatamed N, Apple S, Song S, Said J. Primary Effusion Lymphoma Involving the Cerebrospinal Fluid. Diagn Cytopathol. Diagn Cytopathol. 2012; 40(7): 635-638. doi: 10.1002/dc.21653. doi: 10.1002/dc.21653
40. Moatamed N, Nanjangud G, Pucci R, et al. Effect of Ischemic time, fixation time, and fixative types on Her-2/neu Immunohistochemical and Flourescence In Situ Hybridization results in Breast cancer. Am. J. Clin Pathol. 2011; 136(5): 754-761. doi: 10.1309/AJCP99WZGBPKCXOQ.
41. Moatamed N, Apple S, Bennett CB, Aronson WJ, Klisak I, Shirley B, and Moatamed F. Exclusion of the Uniform Tetraploid Cells Significantly Improves Specificity of the Urine FISH Assay. Diagnostic Cytopathology 2011.
42. Moatamed N, Le L, Levin M, Apple S. In Papanicolaou Smears, Benign Appearing Endometrial Cells Bear no Significance in Predicting Uterine Endometrial Carcinomas. Diagnostic Cytopathology. 2011. doi: 10.1002/dc.21863
43. Jin Y, Hirschowitz S, Apple S. Metastatic Lobular carcinoma of the Breast in Pleural Fluid: Diagnostic Pitfall for Mesothelial Cells. The Open Breast Cancer Journal 2011;3:49-52. doi: 10.2174/1876817201103010049
44. Su A, Apple S, Moatamed N. Pleomorphic adenoma of the vulva, clinical reminder of a rare occurrence. Rare Tumors. 2012; 4(1): e16. doi: 10.4081/rt.2012.e16
45. Lluri MV, Moatamed N, Hong E, Apple S. High concordance between Hercept Test immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization before and after implementation of American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathology 2007 Guidelines. Mod Pathol. 2012 Oct;25(10):1326-32. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2012.93
46. Vora A, Lai C, Rao JY, Apple S, Moatamed N. Paraganglioma with unusual presentation in parotid gland: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration. CytoJournal 2012; 9(26): 1-4. doi: 10.4103/1742-6413.105119
47. Noronha YS and Apple S. Uterine leiomyosarcoma presenting as breast metastasis. The Breast Journal 2013; 107-109.. doi: 10.1111/tbj.12054
48. Moatamed N, Rao JY, Alexanian S, et al. ProEx C as an adjunct marker to improve cytological detection of urothelial carcinoma in urinary specimens. Cancer Cytopathology 2013; 121(6): 320-328.doi: 10.1002/cncy.21264
49. Yeh M, Korenman S, Apple S, Bhuta S, Sohsman M, Janzen C. Primary Hyperparathyroidism due to Parathyromatosis in Pregnancy: A case report. Endocrine Practice. doi: 10.4158/EP13105.CR © 2013 AACE
50. Moatamed N, Luri MV, Apple S, Lu D, Kerkoutian S, Rao JY. Utility of ProEx C in the histologic evaluation of the neoplastic and nonneoplastic urothelial lesions. Human Pathol 2013; 13:265-7. S0046-8177(13)00265-7. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2013.06.011
51. Chang S, Moatamed N, Ky C, Salami N, Apple S. The Sheep in Wolf’s clothing: Vegetable and Fruit particles mimicking cells and microorganisms in cytology specimens. J Cytol Histol 2013; 5: 1-11.
52. Fu Y, Chung D, Cao MA, Apple S, Chang H. Is axillary lymph node dissection necessary after sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 breast cancer?. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21(13): 4109-4123. doi: 10.1245/s10434-014-3814-3
53. Lluri V, Hu E, Rao JY, Levin M, Apple SK, Moatamed NA. Comparative evaluation of ProEx C and ImmunoCyt/uCyt assays in atypical urine cytology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2014; 138(9): 1215-1222. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2013-0433-OA
54. Mammod A ,Apple S. Ductal Carcinoma In-situ Arising in a Complex Sclerosing Lesion with Secretory Endometrium-Like Changes . The Breast Journal 2014; 20(5): 547-549. doi: 10.1111/tbj.12312
55. Lluri VM, Prati R, Petersen J, Omidvar Y, Apple S. Recurrence Rates in Breast Cancer Patients Who Had Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Alone Versus Completion Axillary Lymph Node Dissection: A 7-Year Clinical Follow-Up Study. Breast J. 2014. doi: 10.1111/tbj.12347
56. Sullivan P, Hirschowitz S, Fung PC, Apple S. The impact ofatypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance and repeat fine-needle aspiration: 5 years before and after implementation of the Bethesda System. Cancer Cytopathol. 2014; 122(12): 866-872. doi: 10.1002/cncy.21468. S.
57. Farahmand V, Apple S. Did Oncotype DX recurrence score accurately predict the risk of recurrence and correctly guide who can avoid chemotherapy in breast cancer? A 10 year clinical follow-up study. The Open Breast Cancer Journal, 2015; 7: 7-12.
58. Fu Y, Zhuang Z, Dewing M, Apple S, Chang H. Predictors for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(4): 3748-3764.
59. Lee M, Varzi L, Chung D, et al. The effect of young age in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. J. Surg Oncol. Biomed Research International, 2015 doi: 10.1155/2015/325715
60. N. Moatamed, A.Wu and S. Apple. Cytokeratin 7 Negative Invasive Breast Carcinoma: Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Analyses of 13 cases. J Clin Pathol. 2015; 68(6): 484-487. doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202729
61. Kallen ME, Sim MS, Radosavcev BL, Humphries RM, Ward DC, Apple SK. A quality initiative of postoperative radiographic imaging performed on mastectomy specimens to reduce histology cost and pathology report turnaround time. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2015.07.007
62. Fu Y, Zhuang Z, Dewing M, Apple S, Chang H. Predictors for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(4): 3748-3764.