Review on Epidemiology and Economic Impact of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Ethiopian Perspective

*Corresponding author: Mohammed Mustefa and Beredo Bedore*

Abstract

Brucella are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic zoonotic disease. The genus of Brucella are subdivided into six species categorized by antigenic variation and primary preferred host and these include B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis and B. neotomae. The epidemiologies of the disease in livestock and humans, as well as appropriate preventive measures, are not well understood in developing countries. Materials excreted from the female genital tract acting as the main supply of organisms for transmission to other animals and human. Millions of individuals are at risk worldwide, especially in countries where infection in animals has not been brought under control, procedures for the heat treatment of milk, such as pasteurization are not routinely applied, and standards of hygiene in animal husbandry are low. A precise diagnosis of brucellosis is important for the control of the disease in animals and consequently in human. Molecular and serological techniques are important tools for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of species and biotyping. The economic and public health impact of bucellosis remains particular concern and neglected in developing countries. The disease mainly hampers the productivity of small ruminant’s resulting infertility and increase the average inter-calving periods. One of the major gaps in our knowledge at present is the relative contribution of brucellosis on small ruminant and humans. In Ethiopia, no strategy is in place to control brucellosis. The most important approach to the control and prevent human of brucellosis in human and animal is the practice of one health approach. So knowing the status of small ruminant brucellosis in our country is therefore extremely important. Therefore, the aims of this review are; a) To highlight (snapshot) of brucellosis in the small ruminant; b) To show the seroprevalence status of small ruminant brucellosis in Ethiopia perspective; c)To highlight possible risk factor and its economic importance.

Keywords

Small ruminants; Brucellosis; Sheeps; Goats, Ethiopia.

Abbereviations

ASS: Agricultural Sample Survey; CFSPH: Center for Food Security and Public Health; CFT: Complement Fixation Test; CSA: Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay; FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization; IBM: Interim Brucellosis Manual; Ig: Immunoglobulin; ILCA: International Livestock Center for Africa; MoARD: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; MZN: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen; NVI: National Veterinary Institute; OIE: Office International de Epizootics; RBPT: Rose Bengal Plate Test; WHO: World Health Organization; I-ELISA: Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.