Raouf A. Khalil, MD, PhD
Department of Surgery
Harvard Medical School
Division of Vascular Surgery
Brigham and Womens Hospital
75 Francis Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
• (1976), Degree MBBCh (MD Equiv)Institution Cairo University, School of Medicine Discipline Medicine
• (1983), MS. Assiut University, School of Medicine Pharmacology
• (1989), PhD Univ of Miami School of Medicine Pharmacology
• (1977-1978), Intern Medicine Kasr El-Eini Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
• (1978-1980), Resident Medicine Ministry of Public Health, Egypt
• (1980-1985), Trainee Pharmacology Assiut University, School of Medicine, Assiut, Egypt
• (1985-1989), Trainee Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
• (1989-1991), Research Fellow Physiology in Medicine Harvard Medical School Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA
His research interests include: Cardiac, Smooth and Skeletal Muscle physiology, Vascular Biology, Molecular Biology, Signal Transduction, Angiogenesis, Apoptosis, Electrophysiology, Light and Electron Microscopy, Fluorescent Probes, Immuno fluorescence and Immuno histochemistry, Digital Imaging Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy, Vascular smooth muscle, Endothelium, Intracellular ions, Calcium, Sodium, Ion Channels and Transport Mechanisms, Receptors, GTP-Binding Proteins, Protein Kinases and Phosphatases, Contractile proteins, Cytokines, Sex Hormones, Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Prostaglandins, Endothelin, Nitric Oxide, Regulation of Arterial Pressure, Hemodynamics, Microcirculation, Hypertension, Coronary Artery Disease, Atherosclerosis, Gender Differences in Vascular Function, Pregnancy, Preeclampsia.
HONORS AND PRIZES
• (1976), MD with Honors, Cairo University, School of Medicine
• (1987), Top student in Pharmacology, Class of 1987, University of Miami School of Medicine
• (1987), ASPET Travel Award
• (1989), Scientific Merit Award, Eastern Student Research Forum, Miami, Florida
• (1991), FASEB New Investigator Award
• (1992), Travel Stipends for Young Investigators, AHA Council on Basic Sciences
• (1997), Finalist, 1998 Harry Gold blatt Award in Cardiovascular Research
• (2005), Star Reviewer, The American Physiological Society, and the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology
• (2009), Superior Editorial Consultant, Circulation Research, Journal of the American Heart Association Report
• (1989-1995), Member Arteries, Ions & Receptors Group, Boston, MA
• (1991), Member American Heart Association, Council on Basic Sciences
• (1991-2002), Member Biophysical Society
• (1991-1995), Member New England Smooth Muscle Society
• (1992-1995), Member Thrombosis & Vascular Biology Group, Harvard Medical School
• (1992-1995), Member Program in Smooth Muscle Research, Harvard Medical School
• (1997), Member The American Physiological Society
• (1997), Fellow Council for High Blood Pressure Research
• (1999-2001), Membership Committee The American Physiological Society
• (2000), Abstract Reviewer 18th Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) 2000
• (2002-2004), Chair, Membership Committee The American Physiological Society
• (2007), Abstract Reviewer 61st Annual High Blood Pressure Research Conference 2007 in association with the Council on Kidney in CV Disease
• (2008), Abstract Reviewer 62nd Annual High Blood Pressure Research Conference 2008 in association with the Council on Kidney in CV Disease
• (2009), Abstract Reviewer 63rd Annual High Blood Pressure Research Conference 2009 in association with the Council on Kidney in CV Disease
• (2009), Abstract Grader American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2009
• (2010), Abstract Reviewer 64th Annual High Blood Pressure Research Conference 2010 in association with the Council on Kidney in CV Disease
• (2011), Abstract Reviewer 65th Annual American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Research 2011 Scientific Sessions Conference
• (2012), Abstract Grader66th Annual American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Research 2012 Scientific Sessions
• (2013), Abstract Grader 67th Annual American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Research 2012 Scientific Sessions
• (2014), Abstract Grader 68th Annual American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Research 2014Scientific Sessions
• (2014), Abstract Reviewer 2014 World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP), October 2014, New Orleans
PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS IN PRINT OR OTHER MEDIA
ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPERS
1. Khalil RA, van Breemen C. Sustained contraction of vascular smooth muscle: calcium influx or C-kinase activation? J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988; 244(2): 537-542.
2. Nishimura J, Khalil RA, Drenth JP, van Breemen C. Evidence for increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in norepinephrine-activated vascular smooth muscle. Am J Physiol. 1990; 259(1(2)): H2-H8.
3. Khalil RA, van Breemen C. Intracellular free calcium concentration/force relationship in rabbit inferior vena cava activated by norepinephrine and high K+. Pflügers Arch. 1990; 416(6): 727-734. doi: 10.1007/BF00370622
4. Khalil RA, Morgan KG. Imaging of protein kinase C distribution and translocation in living vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 1991; 69(6): 1626-1631.
5. Khalil RA, Lajoie C, Resnick MS, Morgan KG. Ca2+-independent isoforms of protein kinase C differentially translocate in smooth muscle. Am J Physiol. 1992; 263(3(1)): C714-C719.
6. Khalil RA, Morgan KG. Phenylephrine-induced translocation of protein kinase C and shortening of two types of vascular cells of the ferret. J Physiol. 1992; 455: 585-599.
7. Khalil RA, Morgan KG. PKC-mediated redistribution of mitogen-activated protein kinase during smooth muscle cell activation. Am J Physiol. 1993; 265(2(1)): C406-C411.
8. Khalil RA, Lajoie C, Morgan KG. In situ determination of [Ca2+]i threshold for translocation of the alpha-protein kinase C isoform. Am J Physiol. 1994; 266(6)1)): C1544-C1551.
9. Khalil RA, Menice CB, Wang CL, Morgan KG. Phosphotyrosine-dependent targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase in differentiated contractile vascular cells. Circ Res. 1995; 76(6): 1101-1108. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.76.6.1101
10. Mii S, Khalil RA, Morgan KG, Ware JA, Kent KC. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol. 1996; 270(1(2)): H142-H150.
11. Khalil RA, Crews JK, Novak J, Kassab S, Granger JP. Enhanced vascular reactivity during inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in pregnant rats. Hypertension. 1998; 31(5): 1065-1069. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.31.5.1065
12. Kanashiro CA, Khalil RA. Isoform-specific protein kinase C activity at variable Ca2+ entry during coronary artery contraction by vasoactive eicosanoids. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998; 76(12): 1110-1119.
13. Crews JK, Novak J, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Stimulated mechanisms of Ca2+ entry into vascular smooth muscle during NO synthesis inhibition in pregnant rats. Am J Physiol. 1999; 276(2(2)): R530-R558.
14. Murphy JG, Khalil RA. Decreased [Ca2+] i during inhibition of coronary smooth muscle contraction by 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999; 291(1): 44-52.
15. Crews JK, Khalil RA. Antagonistic effects of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on Ca2+ entry mechanisms of coronary vasoconstriction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999; 19(4): 1034-1040. doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.19.4.1034
16. Khalil RA, Crews JK, Carroll JF, Hall JE. Enhanced vascular reactivity and Ca2+ entry with low-salt diet: effect of obesity. Hypertension. 1999; 34(4(2)): 882-888. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.34.4.882
17. Crews JK, Khalil RA. Gender-specific inhibition of Ca2+ entry mechanisms of arterial vasoconstriction by sex hormones. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1999; 26(9): 707-715. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1681.1999.03110.x
18. Kanashiro CA, Alexander BT, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Ca2+-insensitive vascular protein kinase C during pregnancy and NOS inhibition. Hypertension. 1999; 34(4(2)): 924-930. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.34.4.924
3819. CrewsCrews JK, Murphy JG, Khalil RA. Gender differences in Ca2+ entry mechanisms of vasoconstriction in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1999; 34(4(2)): 931-936. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.34.4.931
20. Kanashiro CA, Cockrell KL, Alexander BT, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Pregnancy-associated reduction in vascular protein kinase C activity rebounds during inhibition of NO synthesis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000; 278(2): R295-R303.
21. Murphy JG, Khalil RA. Gender-specific reduction in contractility and [Ca2+]i in vascular smooth muscle cells of female rat. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000; 278(4): C834-C844.
22. Kanashiro CA, Altirkawi KA, Khalil RA. Preconditioning of Coronary Artery Against Vasoconstriction by Endothelin-1 and Prostaglandin F2[alpha] During Repeated Downregulation of [small element of]-Protein Kinase C. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000; 35(3): 491-501.
23. Crews JK, Herrington JN, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation during reduction of uterine perfusion pressure in pregnant rat. Hypertension. 2000; 35(1(2)): 367-372. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.35.1.367
24. Murphy JG, Fleming JB, Cockrell KL, Granger JP, Khalil RA. [Ca2+] i signaling in renal arterial smooth muscle cells of pregnant rat is enhanced during inhibition of NOS. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001; 280(1): R87-R99.
25. Giardina JB, Tanner DJ, Khalil RA. Oxidized-LDL Enhances Coronary Vasoconstriction by Increasing the Activity of Protein Kinase C Isoforms α and ε. Hypertension. 2001; 37(2(2)): 561-568. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.37.2.561
26. Kanashiro CA, Khalil RA. Gender-related distinctions in protein kinase C activity in rat vascular smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001; 280(1): C34-C45.
27. Giardina JB, Green GM, Rinewalt AN, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Role of endothelin B receptors in enhancing endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated vascular relaxation during high salt diet. Hypertension. 2001; 37(2(2)): 516-523. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.37.2.516
28. Sirous ZN, Fleming JB, Khalil RA. Endothelin-1 enhances eicosanoids-induced coronary smooth muscle contraction by activating specific protein kinase C isoforms. Hypertension. 2001; 37(2(2)): 497504. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.37.2.497
29. Barron LA, Giardina JB, Granger JP, Khalil RA. High-salt diet enhances vascular reactivity in pregnant rats with normal and reduced uterine perfusion pressure. Hypertension. 2001; 38(3(2)): 7305. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.38.3.730
30. Davis JR, Giardina JB, Green GM, Alexander BT, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP vascular relaxation pathway during TNF-alpha-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002; 282(2): R390-R399. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00270.2001
31. Coleman DA, Khalil RA. Physiologic increases in extracellular sodium salt enhance coronary vasoconstriction and Ca2+ entry. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 2002; 40(1): 58-66.
32. Giardina JB, Cockrell KL, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Low salt diet enhances vascular reactivity and Ca2+ entry in pregnant rats with normal and reduced uterine perfusion pressure. Hypertension. 2002; 39(2): 368-374. doi: 10.1161/hy02t2.102806
33. Cain AE, Tanner DM, Khalil RA. Endothelin-1-induced enhancement of coronary contraction via MAPK-dependent and MAPK-independent [Ca2+]i sensitization pathways. Hypertension. 2002; 39(2): 543-539. doi: 10.1161/hy0202.103129
34. Barron LA, Green GM, Khalil RA. Gender differences in vascular smooth muscle reactivity to increases in extracellular sodium salt. Hypertension. 2002; 39(2): 425-432. doi: 10.1161/hy02t2.102779
35. Giardina JB, Green GM, Cockrell KL, Granger JP, Khalil RA TNF-alpha enhances contraction and inhibits endothelial NO-cGMP relaxation in systemic vessels of pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002; 283(1): R130-R143. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00704.2001
36. Murphy JG, Herrington JN, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Enhanced [Ca2+]i and contraction in renal arterial smooth muscle cells of pregnant rats with reduced uterine perfusion pressure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003; 284: H393-H403. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00247.2002
37. Tian N, Gannon AW, Khalil RA, Manning RD Jr. Mechanisms of salt-sensitive hypertension: role of renal medullary inducible nitric oxide synthase. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003; 284(2): R372-R379. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00509.2002
38. Smith L, Payne JA, Sedeek MH, Granger JP, Khalil RA. Endothelin-induced increases in Ca2+ entry mechanisms of vascular c ontraction are enhanced during high-salt diet. Hypertension. 2003; 41(3(2)): 787-793. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000051643.05700.56
39. Payne JA, Reckelhoff JF, Khalil RA. Role of oxidative stress in age-related reduction of NO-cGMP mediated vascular relaxation in SHR. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003,285: R542-R551. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00056.2003
40. Payne JA, Alexander BT, Khalil RA. Reduced endothelial vascular relaxation in growth-restricted offspring of pregnant rats with reduced uterine perfusion. Hypertension. 2003; 42(4): 768-774. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000084990.88147.0C
41. Chew DK, Orshal JM, Khalil RA. Elastase-induced suppression of endothelin-mediated Ca2+ entry mechanisms of vascular contraction. Hypertension. 2003; 42(4): 818-824. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000086200.93184.8E
42. Dallas A, Khalil RA. Ca2+ antagonist-insensitive coronary smooth muscle contraction involves activation of ϵ-protein kinase C-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003; 285(6): C1454-C1463. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00066.2003
43. Wynne FL, Payne JA, Cain AE, Reckelhoff JF, Khalil RA. Age-related reduction in estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of vascular relaxation in female SHR rats. Hypertension. 2004; 43(2): 405-412. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000111833.82664.0c
44. Payne JA, Alexander BT, Khalil RA. Decreased endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP vascular relaxation and hypertension in growth-restricted rats on high salt diet. Hypertension . 2004; 43(2): 420-427. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000111832.47667.13
45. Orshal JM, Khalil RA. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP mediated vascular relaxation and hypertension ininterleukin-6 infused pregnant rats. Hypertension. 2004; 43(2): 434-444. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000113044.46326.98
46. Chew DKW, Orshal JM, Khalil RA. Elastase promotes aortic dilation by inhibiting Ca2+ influx into vascular smooth muscle. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004; 43(4): 504-513.
47. McNair LL, Salamanca DA, Khalil RA. Endothelin-1 Promotes Ca2+ Antagonist-Insensitive Coronary Smooth Muscle Contraction Via Activation of ε-Protein Kinase C. Hypertension. 2004; 43(4): 897-904. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000118520.92686.3b
48. Orshal JM, Khalil RA. Interleukin-6 impairs endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP mediated relaxation and enhances contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004; 286: R1013-R1023. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00729.2003
49. Chew DK, Conte MS, Khalil RA. Matrix metalloproteinase-specific inhibition of Ca2+ entry mechanisms of vascular contraction. J Vasc Surg. 2004; 40(5): 1001-1010. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2004.08.035
50. Raffetto JD, Ross RL, Khalil RA. Matrix metalloproteinase 2-induced venous dilation via hyperpolarization and activation of K+ channels: Relevance to varicose vein formation. J Vasc Surg. 2007; 45(2): 373-380. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2006.10.041
51. Claro S, Kanashiro CA, Oshiro ME, Ferreira AT, Khalil RA. alpha- and epsilon-protein kinase C activity during smooth muscle cell apoptosis in response to gamma-radiation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007; 322(3): 964-972. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.125930
52. Pojoga LH, Yao TM, Sinha S, et al. Effect of dietary sodium on vasoconstriction and eNOS-mediated vascular relaxation in caveolin-1 deficient mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008; 294(3): H1258-H1265. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.01014.2007
53. Raffetto JD, Qiao X, Koledova VV, Khalil RA. Prolonged increases in vein wall tension increase matrix metalloproteinases and decrease constriction in rat vena cava. Potential implications in varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 2008; 48(2): 447-456. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.03.004
54. Chen W, Khalil RA. Differential [Ca2+]i signaling of vasoconstriction in mesenteric microvessels of normal and reduced uterine perfusion pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008; 295(6): R1962-R1972. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.90523.2008
55. Stennett AK, Qiao X, Falone AE, Koledova VV, Khalil RA. Increased vascular angiotensin type 2 receptor expression and NOS-mediated mechanisms of vascular relaxation in pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009; 296(3): H745-H755. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00861.2008
56. Raffetto JD, Barros YV, Wells AK, Khalil RA. MMP-2 Induced Vein Relaxation via Inhibition of [Ca2+]e-Dependent Mechanisms of Venous Smooth Muscle Contraction. Role of RGD Peptides. J Surg Res. 2010; 159(2): 755-764. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.09.022
57. Xia Y, Khalil RA. Sex-related decrease in [Ca2+]i signaling and Ca2+-dependent contraction in inferior vena cava of female rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 298: R15-R24. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00465.2009
58. Raffetto JD, Qiao X, Beauregard KG, et al. Functional adaptation of venous smooth muscle response to vasoconstriction in proximal, distal, and varix segments of varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 2010; 51(4): 962-971. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2009.11.037
59. Mam V, Tanbe AF, Vitali SH, Arons E, Christou HA, Khalil RA. Impaired vasoconstriction and nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in pulmonary arteries of hypoxia- and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010; 332(2): 455-462. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.160119
60. Raffetto JD, Qiao X, Beauregard KG, Khalil RA. Estrogen receptor-mediated enhancement of venous relaxation in female rat: Implications in sex-related differences in varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 2010; 51(4): 972-981. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2009.11.074
61. Pojoga LH, Adamová Z, Kumar A, et al. Sensitivity of NOS-dependent vascular relaxation pathway to mineralocorticoid receptor blockade in caveolin-1-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010; 298(6): H1776-H1788. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00661.2009
62. Ma Y, Qiao X, Falone AE, Reslan OM, Sheppard SJ, Khalil RA. Gender-specific reduction in contraction is associated with increased estrogen receptor expression in single vascular smooth muscle cells of female rat. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010; 26: 457-470. doi: 10.1159/000320569
63. Lim CS, Qiao X, Reslan OM, et al. Prolonged mechanical stretch is associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors and reduced contraction in rat inferior vena cava. J Vasc Surg. 2011; 53(3): 764-773. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2010.09.018
64. Bafford R, Sui XX, Park M, et al. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in human venous smooth muscle cells: A potential role for aldosterone signaling in vein graft disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011; 301(1): H41-H47. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00637
65. Raffetto JD, Khalil RA. Ca2+-dependent contraction by the saponoside escin in rat vena cava. Implications in venotonic treatment of varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 2011; 54(2): 489-496. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.01.043
66. Pojoga LH, Williams JS, Yao TM, et al. Histone demethylase LSD1 deficiency during high salt diet is associated with enhanced vascular contraction, altered NO-cGMP relaxation pathway, and hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011; 301(5): H1862-H1871. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00513.2011
67. Raffetto JD, Yu P, Reslan OM, Xia Y, Khalil RA. Endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and hyperpolarization-mediated venous relaxation pathways in rat inferior vena cava. J Vasc Surg. 2012; 55(6): 1716-1725. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.10.124
68. Christou H, Reslan OM, Mam V, et al. Improved pulmonary vascular reactivity and decreased hypertrophic remodeling during non-hypercapnic acidosis in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012; 302(9): L875-L890. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00293.2011
69. Regnault V, Thomas F, Safar ME, et al. Sex difference in cardiovascular risk: role of pulse pressure amplification. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59(20): 1771-1777. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.01.044.
70. YinZ, Sada AA, Reslan OM, Narula N, Khalil RA. Increased MMPs expression and decreased contraction in the rat myometrium during pregnancy and in response to prolonged stretch and sex hormones. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 303(1): E55-E70. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00553.2011
71. Reslan OM, Yin Z, do Nascimento GRA, Khalil RA. Subtype-specific estrogen receptor-mediated vasodilator activity in the cephalic, thoracic and abdominal vasculature of female rat. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013; 62(1): 26-40. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31828bc88a
72. Mazzuca MQ, Dang Y, Khalil RA. Enhanced endothelin receptor type B-mediated vasodilation and underlying [Ca2+]i in mesenteric microvessels of pregnant rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2013; 169(6): 1335-1351. doi: 10.1111/bph.12225
73. Dang Y, Li W, Tran V, Khalil RA. EMMPRIN-mediated induction of uterine and vascular matrix metalloproteinases during pregnancy and in response to estrogen and progesterone. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013; 86(6): 734-747. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.06.030
74. Pojoga LH, Yao TM, Opsasnick LA, et al. Dissociation of hyperglycemia from altered vascular contraction and relaxation mechanisms in caveolin-1 null mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014; 348(2): 260-270. doi: 10.1124/jpet.113.209189
75. Ou M, Dang Y, Mazzuca MQ, Basile R, Khalil RA. Adaptive regulation of endothelin receptor type-A and type-B in vascular smooth muscle cells during pregnancy in rats. J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(4): 489-501. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24469