National Consensus for Screening, Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Panama, 2022.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver neoplasm, the sixth most common solid neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.
Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa exceeding 15 cases per 100,000 inhabitants each year, while in North America cases per 100,000 inhabitants each year In recent decades, there have been significant changes in the exposure to the risk factors associated to HCC.
The introduction of universal vaccination against HBV and the implementation of modern antiviral agents for HCV have reduce the incidence of viral-related HCC.
Additionally, the increase in prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity and metabolic syndrome in Western countries are becoming more prevalent in HCC patients. Chronic liver inflammation secondary to viral hepatitis is responsible for the chronic inflammatory process that involves necrosis and regeneration of the tissue, leading to cirrhosis.
Once the molecular and structural damage are established, the risk of developing HCC does not disappear despite eradication and control of the virus. This is also true for any disease that could lead to liver cirrhosis, which are consider.