N. Clayton Silver, PhD

Associate Professor
Department of Psychology
University of Nevada
Las Vegas, USA

E-mail: fdnsilvr@unlv.nevada.edu


Dr. Silver is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He received his Bachelors degree from the University of Cincinnati and Masters and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Tulane University. After receiving his PhD, he taught at the University of Richmond, Appalachian State University, and the University of Central Florida. He is co-author of one book and numerous scholarly articles in a variety of psychological areas.

Research Interest

Dr. Silver has two main research areas. First, he investigates the salience, understandability, and behavioral compliance of warnings. There are numerous variables (eg, familiarity of a product; signal words; icons) that influence whether we notice, read, and/or comply with a warning. His research considers these variables in an attempt to ultimately reduce accidents and increase safety related behaviors. Dr. Silver is also interested in general human factors issues.
Second, Dr. Silver develops user-friendly statistical software that augments the standard statistical software packages (e. g., SPSS). Moreover, he also uses Monte Carlo simulations to examine the behavior (e g, Type I error, power) of various statistical techniques. One of his primary interests in this field concerns hypothesis testing in correlation. Dr. Silver also has interests in psychometrics and measurement, including scale development and score validation.

Scientific Activities


• (1993) Awarded curriculum development grant at the University of Central Florida for conducting a survey of undergraduate capstone courses among psychology departments across the country. Amount: $1680


• APA Student Travel Award (March, 1988)
• Rosalba Ruiz Award for Research (May, 1985)


• Sigma Xi Psi Chi (National Honor Society in Psychology)
Rocky Mountain Psychological Association
Southeastern Psychological Association
Western Psychological Association


• (1993-present) Served on Psychology Student Awards, Graduate Student Selection, Psychology Graduate Training, Department Master Plan, University Equity, Leadership Assessment, Experimental Psychology Steering and Search, Academic Budget, Bylaws, Financial Aid, Graduate Statistics, Library, Grievance (chair), Special Hearing, and Instructional Media ConsultantSearch, Cognitive Psychology, Multicultural, Quantitative, Personnel, andDevelopmental Search Committees, Chair – Industrial/Organizational Psychology Search Committee, Human Subject Pool Coordinator -Psychology (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
• (1990-1993) Served on Departmental Personnel, Human Factors, Undergraduate, Industrial/Organizational, Human Subjects, Psychology Core Curriculum, and Chair of Psychology Honors Program Development Committees (University of CentralFlorida)
• (1989-1990) Served on Departmental Personnel (alternate), Research, and Peer Review committees (Appalachian State University)
• (1988-1989) Served on Budget, Resources, and Strategic Planning Committee (University of Richmond)
• (1988) Served on committee studying administrative processes for the Self-Study program (Southern University at New Orleans)
• (1983-1988) Member of Ethics Committee (TulaneUniversity)
• (1982-1983) Member of Colloquium Committee (TulaneUniversity)



1. Steiner ET, Silver NC, Hall C, Downing C, Hurton D, Gray PB. Raising canine: Cross-species parallels in parental investment. Human-Animal Interaction. 2013; 1: 38- 54.
2. Burn SM Winter PL, Hori B, Silver NC. Gender, ethnic identity, and environmental concern in Asian Americans and European Americans. Human Ecology Review. 2012; 19: 136-145.
3. Silver NC, Steiner ET, Guillaume MM. SAMPAL: A Program for Determining Sample Sizes for Testing and Estimating Coefficient Alpha and for Comparing Two Alpha Coefficients. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2012; 36: 151-152.
4. Caldwell RM, Silver NC, Strada M. Substance Abuse, Familial Factors, and Mental Health: Exploring Racial and Ethnic Group Differences among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic Juvenile Offenders. American Journal of Family Therapy. 2010; 38: 310-321. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2010.493438
5. Hittner JB, May K, Silver NC. Sample size determination for health psychology interventions with binomially distributed outcomes. Journal of Health Psychology. 2010; 15: 871-875.
6. Silver NC. Attenuation. In P. Lavrakas (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2008; 36-37.
7. Buck JM, Kelly WE, Silver NC. An investigation of the relationship between depression and worry: A research note. Individual Differences Research. 2008; 6: 120-122.
8. Silver,NC, Zaikina H, Hittner JB, May K. INCOR: A computer program for testing differences among independent correlations. Molecular Ecology Resources. 2008; 8: 763-764. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02107.x
9. Donohue BC, SilverNC , Dickens Y, Covassin T, Lancer K. Development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Sport Interference Checklist. Behavior Modification. 2007; 31: 937-957. doi: 10.1177/0145445507303827
10. Caldwell RM, Sturges SM, Silver NC. Home versus school environments and their influences on the affective and behavioral states of African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian juvenile offenders. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2007; 16: 125-138. doi: 10.1007/s10826-006-9073-6
11. Caldwell RM, Beutler,LE, Ross SA, Silver NC. An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem, and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents. Journal of Adolescence. 2006; 29: 459-464. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.07.005
12. Silver NC, Hittner JB, May K. A FORTRAN 77 program for testing dependent correlations. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2006; 30: 152-153. doi: 10.1177/0146621605277132
13. Caldwell RM, Sturges SM, Silver NC, Brinson J, Denby-Brinson R. An examination of the influence of perceived parenting practices on depression and substance abuse among African American juvenile offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice. 2006; 6: 31-50. doi: 10.1300/J158v06n03_02
14. Braun CC, Fouts J, Silver NC, Putnam T. Effect of fire shelters on perceived fire danger: Implications for risk compensation. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2005; 14: 297-306. doi: 10.1071/WF04071
15. Silver NC. Statistical Software. In B. Everitt, Howell DC . (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Behavioral Statistics. New York: Wiley. 2005; 1880-1884.
16. Silver NC , Hittner JB, May K. Testing dependent correlations with nonoverlapping variables: A Monte Carlo Simulation. Journal of Experimental Education. 2004; 73: 53-69. doi: 10.3200/JEXE.71.1.53-70
17. Donohue B, AzrinNH, Strada MJ, Silver NC, Teichner G, Murphy H. Psychometric evaluation of self and collateral timeline follow-back reports of drug and alcohol use in a sample of drug abusing and conduct disordered adolescents and their parents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2004; 18: 184-189. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.18.2.184
18. Caldwell RM, Silverman J, Lefforge N, Silver NC. Adjudicated Mexican American Adolescents: The effects of familial emotional support on self-esteem, emotional well-being, and delinquency. American Journal of Family Therapy. 2004; 32: 55-69.
19. Donohue B, Teichner G, Azrin N, et al. Initial reliability and validity of the life satisfaction scale for problem youth in a sample of drug abusing and conduct disordered youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2003; 12: 454-464.
20. Silver NC. Attenuation. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, Liao TF. Encyclopedia of Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2003.
21. Caldwell RM, Mandracchia SA, Ross SA, Silver NC. Competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility: An examination of racial and gender differences among African American and Caucasian pretrial defendants. American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 2003; 21: 5-19.
22. Hittner JB, May K, Silver NC. A Monte Carlo evaluation of tests for comparing dependent correlations. Journal of General Psychology. 2003; 130: 149-168. doi: 10.1080/00221300309601282
23. Silver NC. DIFALPHA: A FORTRAN 77 program for testing the difference between independent alpha coefficients with various test lengths. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2001; 25: 68. doi: 10.1177/01466216010251010
24. DavidsonWB, Beck HP, Silver NC. Development and validation of scores on a measure of six academic orientations in college students. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1999; 59: 678-693.
25. Silver NC. A FORTRAN 77 program for computing measures of association for a 2 x 2 contingency table. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1998; 22: 84. doi: 10.1177/01466216980221007
26. Silver NC, Hittner JB. PWCOR: A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 program for computing the pooled-within classes correlation. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1998; 22: 52. doi: 10.1177/01466216980221003
27. Silver NC, Ferrante R. Consumer product warnings. Technology, Law, and Insurance. 1997; 2: 159-164.
28. Silver NC, Hittner JB. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 program for pooling subgroup correlation coefficients. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1997; 57: 884-886. doi: 10.1177/0013164497057005012
29. Thurman JM, Silver NC. Sexual esteem, sexual depression, and sexual preoccupation in the exchange approach to sexuality. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1997; 84: 1-3. doi: 10.2466/pms.1997.84.3.908
30. Braun CC, Silver NC. The interaction of signal word and color on warning labels: Differences in perceived hazard and behavioral compliance. Ergonomics. 1995; 38: 2207-2220. doi: 10.1080/00140139508925263
31. WogalterMS, Silver NC. Warning signal words: Connoted strength and understandability by children, elders, and non-native English speakers. Ergonomics. 1995; 38: 2188-2206. doi: 10.1080/00140139508925262
32. Paris CR, Gilson RD, Thomas MH, Silver NC. Effect of synthetic voice intelligibility upon speech comprehension. Human Factors. 1995; 37: 335-340. doi: 10.1518/001872095779064609
33. Hittner JB, Finger MS, Mancuso JM, Silver NC. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 program for contrasting part and other correlations. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1995; 55: 777-784. doi: 10.1177/0013164495055005010
34. Silver NC, Ferrante R. Sex differences in color preferences among an elderly sample. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1995; 80: 920-922. doi: 10.2466/pms.1995.80.3.920
35. Braun CC, Kline PB, Silver NC. The influence of color on warning label perceptions. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 1995; 15: 179-187. doi: 10.1016/0169-8141(94)00036-3
36. Silver NC, Wadiak DL, Massey CJ. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 program for testing the differences among first-order partial correlations. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1995; 55: 245-248. doi: 10.1177/0013164495055002008
37. Witt LA, Silver NC. The effects of social responsibility and satisfaction on extra-role behaviors. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 1994; 15: 329-338. doi: 10.1207/s15324834basp1503_7
38. Wang MC, Silver NC. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 program for determining the confidence interval around the estimate of the population coefficient for the vote-counting method. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1994; 54: 105-109. doi: 10.1177/0013164494054001013
39. Wooten KC, Barner BO, Silver NC. The influence of cognitive style upon work environment preference. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1994; 79: 307-314.
40. Silver NC, Finger MS. A FORTRAN 77 program for determining the minimum significant increase of the multiple correlation coefficient. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1993; 53: 703-706. doi: 10.1177/0013164493053003013
41. Silver NC, Braun CC. Perceived readability of warning labels with varied font sizes and styles. Safety Science. 1993; 16: 615-625.
42. Silver NC, Finger MS, Burkey RT. A FORTRAN 77 program for testing trends among independent correlations. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1992; 52; 109-111.
43. Silver NC, Burkey RT. A FORTRAN 77 program for testing the differences among independent correlations. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 991; 51; 641-644.
44. Silver NC, Witt LA. Perceived probability of going to jail and predictors of attitudes toward prisoners rights. Psychological Reports. 1991; 68; 371-374. doi: 10.1016/0925-7535(93)90026-A
45. Silver NC, Leonard DC, Ponsi KA, Wogalter MS. Warnings and purchasing intentions for pest-control products. Forensic Reports. 1991; 4; 17-33.
46. Wogalter MS, Silver NC. Arousal strength of signal words. Forensic Reports. 1990; 3; 407-420.
47. Silver NC, Dunlap WP. A FORTRAN IV program for testing the significance of correlation matrices. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1990; 50; 597-599. doi: 10.1177/0013164490503015
48. Tingstrom DH, Silver NC. Acceptability of school-based interventions: A replication with a Black sample. Journal of Psychology. 1990; 124; 587-589.
49. Bailey WT , Silver NC Oliver KA. Womens rights and roles: Attitudes among Black and White students. Psychological Reports. 1990; 66; 1143-1146. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1990.66.3c.1143
50. Silver NC, Phelps GR , Dunlap WP. Baddeleys Grammatical Reasoning Test: Active vs. passive processing differences reexamined. Language Testing. 1989; 6; 164-171.
51. Silver NC, Hollingsworth SC. A FORTRAN 77 program for averaging correlation coefficients. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 1989; 21; 647-650.
52. Dunlap WP, Silver NC. A FORTRAN IV function for computing critical values of ordered half-normal scores. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 1989; 21; 630-635.
53. Silver NC, Dunlap WP. A Monte Carlo study of testing the significance of correlation matrices. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1989; 49; 563-569. doi: 10.1177/001316448904900306
54. Izawa C, Silver NC. Response variations to Stroop color-word stimuli. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs. 1988; 114; 211-255.
55. Silver NC, McCulley WL , Chambliss LN, et al. Sex and racial differences in color and number preferences. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1988; 66; 295-299. doi: 10.2466/pms.1988.66.1.295
56. Silver NC, Dunlap WP. Averaging correlation coefficients: Should Fishers z transformation be used? Journal of Applied Psychology. 1987; 72; 146-148.
57. Dunlap WP, Silver NC , Phelps GR. A Monte Carlo study of using the first eigenvalue for averaging intercorrelations. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1987; 47; 917-923. doi: 10.1177/0013164487474007
58. Dunlap WP, Silver NC , Bittner AC. Estimating reliability with small samples: Increased precision with averaged correlations. Human Factors. 1986; 28; 685-690.
59. Dunlap WP, Silver NC. Confidence intervals and standard errors for ratios of normal variables. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 1986; 18; 469-471.
60. Dunlap WP, Silver NC, Hunter RE, Bittner AC. Averaged cross-correlations: A methodology for validity assessment in small samples. In R. Eberts& C. G. Eberts (Eds.), Trends in Ergonomics/Human Factors:). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. 1985; 2: 13-21.
61. Dunlap WP, Myers L, Silver NC. Exact multinomial probabilities for one-way contingency tables. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 1984; 16: 54-56.
62. Silver NC, Ullman J, Picker CJ. COMPCOR: a computer program for comparing correlations using confidence intervals. Psychol Cogn Sci Open J. 2015; 1(1): 26-28. doi: 10.17140/PCSOJ-1-104
63. Silver NC. Teaching statistics: am I the lone dinosaur? Psychol Cogn Sci Open J. 2016; 2(1): e11-e13. doi: 10.17140/PCSOJ-2-e003
64. Silver NC. Pokémon Go warnings: Will they work? Soc Behav Res Pract Open J. 2016; 1(1): e1-e4. doi: 10.17140/SBRPOJ-1-e001
65. Beach JC, Brownlow S, Greene MD, Silver NC. The “I”s have it: Sex and social status differences on Twitter. Soc Behav Res Pract Open J. 2016; 1(1): 17-21. doi: 10.17140/SBRPOJ-1-104